Other affiliations: Iran University of Science and Technology
Bio: Ehsan Kazemi is an academic researcher from University of Sheffield. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turbulence & Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 13 publications receiving 103 citations. Previous affiliations of Ehsan Kazemi include Iran University of Science and Technology.
TL;DR: Both the roughness effect and flow turbulence should be addressed in order to simulate the correct mechanisms of turbulent flow over a rough bed boundary and that the presented smoothed particle hydrodynamics model accomplishes this successfully is shown.
Abstract: A numerical model based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is developed to simulate depth-limited turbulent open channel flows over hydraulically rough beds. The 2D Lagrangian form of the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations are solved, in which a drag-based formulation is used based on an effective roughness zone near the bed to account for the roughness effect of bed spheres and an improved Sub-Particle-Scale (SPS) model is applied to account for the effects of turbulence. The SPS model is constructed based on the mixing-length assumption rather than the standard Smagorinsky approach to compute the eddy-viscosity. A more robust in/out-flow boundary technique is also proposed to achieve stable uniform flow conditions at the inlet and outlet boundaries where the flow characteristics are unknown. The model is applied to simulate uniform open channel flow over a rough bed composed of regular spheres and validated by experimental velocity data. To investigate the influence of the bed roughness on different flow conditions, data from 12 experimental tests with different bed slopes and uniform water depths are simulated and a good agreement has been observed between the model and experimental results of the streamwise velocity and turbulent shear stress. This shows that both the roughness effect and flow turbulence should be addressed in order to simulate the correct mechanisms of turbulent flow over a rough bed boundary and that the presented SPH model accomplishes this successfully.
TL;DR: In this article, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model is applied to simulate turbulent open channel flows over and within natural porous gravel beds, where the effect of turbulence is taken into account using a three-layer mixing-length model.
Abstract: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is brought to a level that can be applied to simulate turbulent open channel flows over and within natural porous gravel beds. For this, improvements have been made with regards to i) turbulence modelling, ii) open boundaries (inflow and outflow), and iii) treatment of the rough interface boundary between the porous bed and the overlying free-flow. Flow through the porous bed is simulated macroscopically, and the coefficients of the drag closure model are carefully determined for different layers of the flow; the effect of turbulence is taken into account using a three-layer mixing-length model; and a porous inflow boundary at the inlet as well as an imaginary pressure wall at the outlet are introduced to obtain the required steady and uniform flow conditions. The developed model is then used to simulate eight test cases with two bed conditions, each with four flow conditions. Through a velocity analysis, a nearly S-shaped profile is observed within the roughness layer for the present test cases. The comparison of the results of the velocity and shear stress with a set of experimental data for the test cases reveals that the SPH model with the present drag and turbulence closure models as well as the proposed inflow/outflow boundary techniques is capable of simulating complex turbulent channel flows over highly sheared natural porous gravel beds.
TL;DR: In this article, the macroscopic equations of mass and momentum are developed and discretised based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) formulation for the interaction at an interface of flow with porous media.
Abstract: In this paper, the macroscopic equations of mass and momentum are developed and discretised based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) formulation for the interaction at an interface of flow with porous media. The theoretical background of flow through porous media is investigated in order to highlight the key constraints which should be satisfied, particularly at the interface between the porous media flow and the overlying free flow. The study aims to investigate the derivation of the porous flow equations, computation of the porosity, and treatment of the interfacial boundary layer. It addresses weak assumptions that are commonly adopted for interfacial flow simulation in particle‐based methods. As support to the theoretical analysis, a 2D weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) model is developed based on the proposed interfacial treatment. The equations in this model are written in terms of the intrinsic averages and in the Lagrangian form. The effect of particle volume change due to the spatial change of porosity is taken into account and the extra stress terms in the momentum equation are approximated by using Ergun's equation and the Sub‐Particle Scale (SPS) model to represent the drag and turbulence effects, respectively. Four benchmark test cases covering a range of flow scenarios are simulated to examine the influence of the porous boundary on the internal, interface and external flow. The capacity of the modified SPH model to predict velocity distributions and water surface behaviour is fully examined with a focus on the flow conditions at the interfacial boundary between the overlying free flow and the underlying porous media.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the ArcGIS 10.2 and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model to comprehensively evaluate ecosystem services in the Dongting Lake Wetland, focusing on water yield, soil conservation, carbon storage, and snail control and schistosomiasis prevention.
Abstract: The Aeronautical Reconnaissance Coverage Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) 10.2 and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model are used to comprehensively evaluate ecosystem services in the Dongting Lake Wetland, focusing on water yield, soil conservation, carbon storage, and snail control and schistosomiasis prevention. The spatial and temporal variations of these services, as well as their variations between different land use types in a period of 10 years from 2005 to 2015, are investigated, and the value of such services is then estimated and analyzed. The results of this study show various temporal and spatial trends in the ecosystem services, such as (1) the overall increase of all these services during the study period (although significant in some services, such as schistosomiasis patient reduction, by 86.8%; and, very slight in some others such as soil conservation, only by 0.02%); (2) different orders of the services values that are based on different land use types; and, (3) the temporal changes in the proportion of the values of different ecosystem services with respect to the total services value. Besides, it is concluded that the evaluation of ecosystem services of a certain wetland is heavily dependent on the characteristics of the area where the wetland is located, and the assessment indicators and methods should be selected based on such characteristics through the analysis of the results and a comparison with the findings of literature.
TL;DR: In this article, a sediment mass model in the framework of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method was presented to simulate the riverbed evolution, sediment particle motion, and the generation and development of dynamic hydraulic jump under the condition of sufficient sediment supply over a steep slope with varying angles.
Abstract: Mountainous torrents often carry large amounts of loose materials into the rivers, thus causing strong sediment transport. Experimentally it was found for the first time that when the intensive sediment motion occurs downstream over a gentle slope, the siltation of the riverbed is induced and the sediment particles can move upstream rapidly in the form of a retrograde sand wave, resulting in a higher water level along the river. To further study the complex mechanisms of this problem, a sediment mass model in the framework of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method was presented to simulate the riverbed evolution, sediment particle motion, and the generation and development of dynamic hydraulic jump under the condition of sufficient sediment supply over a steep slope with varying angles. Because the sediment is not a continuous medium, the marker particle tracking approach was proposed to represent a piece of sediment with a marked sediment particle. The two-phase SPH model realizes the interaction between the sediment and fluid by moving the bed boundary particles up and down, so it can reasonably treat the fluid-sediment interfaces with high CPU efficiency. The critical triggering condition of sediment motion, the propagation of the hydraulic jump and the initial siltation position were all systematically studied. The experimental and numerical results revealed the extra disastrous sediment effect in a mountainous flood. The findings will be useful references to the disaster prevention and mitigation in mountainous rivers.
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: Part I presents the statistical theory of turbulence, and Part 2 the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers.
Abstract: Part I presents the statistical theory of turbulence, and Part 2 the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers in hydraulic research, fluid mechanics, environmental sciences and related disciplines. References Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an up-to-date review on several latest advancements related to particle methods with applications in coastal and ocean engineering and highlight the future perspectives for further enhancement of applicability and reliability of particle methods for coastal/ocean engineering applications.
Abstract: The article aims at providing an up-to-date review on several latest advancements related to particle methods with applications in coastal and ocean engineering. The latest advancements corresponding to accuracy, stability, conservation properties, multiphase multi-physics multi-scale simulations, fluid-structure interactions, exclusive coastal/ocean engineering applications and computational efficiency are reviewed. The future perspectives for further enhancement of applicability and reliability of particle methods for coastal/ocean engineering applications are also highlighted.
TL;DR: A review of the recent developments of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method and its typical applications in fluid-structure interactions in ocean engineering can be found in this article.
Abstract: In ocean engineering, the applications are usually related to a free surface which brings so many interesting physical phenomena (e.g. water waves, impacts, splashing jets, etc.). To model these complex free surface flows is a tough and challenging task for most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers which work in the Eulerian framework. As a Lagrangian and meshless method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) offers a convenient tracking for different complex boundaries and a straightforward satisfaction for different boundary conditions. Therefore SPH is robust in modeling complex hydrodynamic problems characterized by free surface boundaries, multiphase interfaces or material discontinuities. Along with the rapid development of the SPH theory, related numerical techniques and high-performance computing technologies, SPH has not only attracted much attention in the academic community, but also gradually gained wide applications in industrial circles. This paper is dedicated to a review of the recent developments of SPH method and its typical applications in fluid-structure interactions in ocean engineering. Different numerical techniques for improving numerical accuracy, satisfying different boundary conditions, improving computational efficiency, suppressing pressure fluctuations and preventing the tensile instability, etc., are introduced. In the numerical results, various typical fluid-structure interaction problems or multiphase problems in ocean engineering are described, modeled and validated. The prospective developments of SPH in ocean engineering are also discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of particle methods in hydrodynamics-related problems in ocean and coastal engineering is presented, where the problems are placed into three categories according to their physical characteristics, namely, wave hydrodynamic and corresponding mass transport, wave-structure interaction, and wave-current-sediment interaction.
Abstract: This paper aims at providing a state-of-the-art review on the applications of particle methods in hydrodynamics-related problems in ocean and coastal engineering. The problems are placed into three categories according to their physical characteristics, namely, wave hydrodynamics and corresponding mass (air, oil, etc.) transport, wave-structure interaction, and wave-current-sediment interaction. For the first category, particle-based simulations of wave generation, propagation, breaking, as well as the associated turbulence production and dissipation, air entrainment, and mass transport, are reviewed. For wave-structure interaction, extensive structural types are considered that include fixed and moving (floating) structures, rigid and deformable structures, impermeable and porous structures, etc. For the third category, the latest advances of particle methods in wave/current interaction with sediments, i.e., sediment transport and coastal morphological changes, are outlined. This article also reviews the latest developments of particle methods with respect to enhancement of numerical stability, accuracy, efficiency and consistency in order to handle the multi-physics and multi-scale problems emerging from coastal and ocean engineering practices. Finally, the future perspectives of extending particle methods to a wider range of ocean and coastal engineering applications are highlighted.
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: A review of open channel turbulence, focusing especially on certain features stemming from the presence of the free surface and the bed of a river, can be found in this article, where the statistical theory of turbulence and coherent structures in open channel flows and boundary layers are discussed.
Abstract: A review of open channel turbulence, focusing especially on certain features stemming from the presence of the free surface and the bed of a river. Part one presents the statistical theory of turbulence; Part two addresses the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers.