Author

# George Papanicolaou

Other affiliations: Cornell University, New York University, Max Planck Society ...read more

Bio: George Papanicolaou is an academic researcher from Stanford University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nonlinear system & Volatility smile. The author has an hindex of 65, co-authored 337 publications receiving 25278 citations. Previous affiliations of George Papanicolaou include Cornell University & New York University.

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5,038 citations

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01 Jan 1978TL;DR: In this article, the authors give a systematic introduction of multiple scale methods for partial differential equations, including their original use for rigorous mathematical analysis in elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic problems, and with the use of probabilistic methods when appropriate.

Abstract: This is a reprinting of a book originally published in 1978. At that time it was the first book on the subject of homogenization, which is the asymptotic analysis of partial differential equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients, and as such it sets the stage for what problems to consider and what methods to use, including probabilistic methods. At the time the book was written the use of asymptotic expansions with multiple scales was new, especially their use as a theoretical tool, combined with energy methods and the construction of test functions for analysis with weak convergence methods. Before this book, multiple scale methods were primarily used for non-linear oscillation problems in the applied mathematics community, not for analyzing spatial oscillations as in homogenization. In the current printing a number of minor corrections have been made, and the bibliography was significantly expanded to include some of the most important recent references. This book gives systematic introduction of multiple scale methods for partial differential equations, including their original use for rigorous mathematical analysis in elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic problems, and with the use of probabilistic methods when appropriate. The book continues to be interesting and useful to readers of different backgrounds, both from pure and applied mathematics, because of its informal style of introducing the multiple scale methodology and the detailed proofs.

4,869 citations

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01 Jan 2000

TL;DR: The Black-Scholes theory of derivative pricing has been applied to derivatives as discussed by the authors, where the rate of mean-reverting stochastic volatility has been estimated for European derivatives.

Abstract: 1. The Black-Scholes theory of derivative pricing 2. Introduction to stochastic volatility models 3. Scales in mean-reverting stochastic volatility 4. Tools for estimating the rate of mean-reversion 5. Symptotics for pricing European derivatives 6. Implementation and stability 7. Hedging strategies 8. Application to exotic derivatives 9. Application to American derivatives 10. Generalizations 11. Applications to interest rates models.

1,083 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived and analyzed transport equations for the energy density of waves of any kind in a random medium, taking account of nonuniformities of the background medium, scattering by random inhomogeneities, polarization effects, coupling of different types of waves, etc.

554 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors considered a system of interacting diffusions and derived a nonlinear diffusion equation for the time evolution of the macroscopic charge density at sites indexed by a periodic one-dimensional lattice.

Abstract: We consider a system of interacting diffusions. The variables are to be thought of as charges at sites indexed by a periodic one-dimensional lattice. The diffusion preserves the total charge and the interaction is of nearest neighbor type. With the appropriate scaling of lattice spacing and time, a nonlinear diffusion equation is derived for the time evolution of the macroscopic charge density.

416 citations

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28,685 citations

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01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: An introduction to a Transient World and an Approximation Tour of Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases.

Abstract: Introduction to a Transient World. Fourier Kingdom. Discrete Revolution. Time Meets Frequency. Frames. Wavelet Zoom. Wavelet Bases. Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases. An Approximation Tour. Estimations are Approximations. Transform Coding. Appendix A: Mathematical Complements. Appendix B: Software Toolboxes.

17,693 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented in this article, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments, and a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q 0 and frequency ω 0 of the instability.

Abstract: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments. Examples include patterns in hydrodynamic systems such as thermal convection in pure fluids and binary mixtures, Taylor-Couette flow, parametric-wave instabilities, as well as patterns in solidification fronts, nonlinear optics, oscillatory chemical reactions and excitable biological media. The theoretical starting point is usually a set of deterministic equations of motion, typically in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are sometimes supplemented by stochastic terms representing thermal or instrumental noise, but for macroscopic systems and carefully designed experiments the stochastic forces are often negligible. An aim of theory is to describe solutions of the deterministic equations that are likely to be reached starting from typical initial conditions and to persist at long times. A unified description is developed, based on the linear instabilities of a homogeneous state, which leads naturally to a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q0 and frequency ω0 of the instability. Type Is systems (ω0=0, q0≠0) are stationary in time and periodic in space; type IIIo systems (ω0≠0, q0=0) are periodic in time and uniform in space; and type Io systems (ω0≠0, q0≠0) are periodic in both space and time. Near a continuous (or supercritical) instability, the dynamics may be accurately described via "amplitude equations," whose form is universal for each type of instability. The specifics of each system enter only through the nonuniversal coefficients. Far from the instability threshold a different universal description known as the "phase equation" may be derived, but it is restricted to slow distortions of an ideal pattern. For many systems appropriate starting equations are either not known or too complicated to analyze conveniently. It is thus useful to introduce phenomenological order-parameter models, which lead to the correct amplitude equations near threshold, and which may be solved analytically or numerically in the nonlinear regime away from the instability. The above theoretical methods are useful in analyzing "real pattern effects" such as the influence of external boundaries, or the formation and dynamics of defects in ideal structures. An important element in nonequilibrium systems is the appearance of deterministic chaos. A greal deal is known about systems with a small number of degrees of freedom displaying "temporal chaos," where the structure of the phase space can be analyzed in detail. For spatially extended systems with many degrees of freedom, on the other hand, one is dealing with spatiotemporal chaos and appropriate methods of analysis need to be developed. In addition to the general features of nonequilibrium pattern formation discussed above, detailed reviews of theoretical and experimental work on many specific systems are presented. These include Rayleigh-Benard convection in a pure fluid, convection in binary-fluid mixtures, electrohydrodynamic convection in nematic liquid crystals, Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders, parametric surface waves, patterns in certain open flow systems, oscillatory chemical reactions, static and dynamic patterns in biological media, crystallization fronts, and patterns in nonlinear optics. A concluding section summarizes what has and has not been accomplished, and attempts to assess the prospects for the future.

6,145 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a methodology for optimal shape design based on homogenization, which is related to modern production techniques and consists of computing the optimal distribution in space of an anisotropic material that is constructed by introducing an infimum of periodically distributed small holes in a given homogeneous, i.i.

Abstract: Optimal shape design of structural elements based on boundary variations results in final designs that are topologically equivalent to the initial choice of design, and general, stable computational schemes for this approach often require some kind of remeshing of the finite element approximation of the analysis problem. This paper presents a methodology for optimal shape design where both these drawbacks can be avoided. The method is related to modern production techniques and consists of computing the optimal distribution in space of an anisotropic material that is constructed by introducing an infimum of periodically distributed small holes in a given homogeneous, i~otropic material, with the requirement that the resulting structure can carry the given loads as well as satisfy other design requirements. The computation of effective material properties for the anisotropic material is carried out using the method of homogenization. Computational results are presented and compared with results obtained by boundary variations.

5,858 citations

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TL;DR: Convergence of Probability Measures as mentioned in this paper is a well-known convergence of probability measures. But it does not consider the relationship between probability measures and the probability distribution of probabilities.

Abstract: Convergence of Probability Measures. By P. Billingsley. Chichester, Sussex, Wiley, 1968. xii, 253 p. 9 1/4“. 117s.

5,689 citations