Other affiliations: University of Mainz, University of Zurich, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev ...read more
Bio: Inon Scharf is an academic researcher from Tel Aviv University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Foraging & Predation. The author has an hindex of 28, co-authored 78 publications receiving 1815 citations. Previous affiliations of Inon Scharf include University of Mainz & University of Zurich.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This synthesis shows that prey abundance may have relatively little effect on pit relocation and that physical properties of the habitat or competition often override its effect, and proposes new research directions, such as studying whether pit relocation is an adaptive response, when controlling for possible phylogenetic effects.
Abstract: There is a large body of evidence indicating that predator behavior may strongly influence patterns and processes at the population and community level. Site selection is a major component of fitness in sit-and-wait predators, especially when relocation is rare. Although several review articles dealt with these issues in web-building spiders, this is the first attempt to summarize the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on site selection and relocation in another group of sit-and-wait predators, the pit-building antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). Our synthesis shows that prey abundance may have relatively little effect on pit relocation and that physical properties of the habitat or competition often override its effect. We suggest that owing to a variety of constraints such as physiological constraints or difficulties in assessing site quality, site selection and relocation are not necessarily optimal and thus food intake rate is not maximized. We call for a multi-factorial study on a single species in order to pinpoint the dominant factors and to assess to what extent they influence site selection and relocation. We conclude by proposing new research directions, such as studying whether pit relocation is an adaptive response, when controlling for possible phylogenetic effects.
TL;DR: Evidence is provided that the behaviour of trap‐building predators is not stereotypic or fixed as was once commonly accepted, rather it can vary greatly, depending on the individual's internal state and its interactions with external environmental factors.
Abstract: Foraging theory was first developed to predict the behaviour of widely-foraging animals that actively search for prey. Although the behaviour of sit-and-wait predators often follows predictions derived from foraging theory, the similarity between these two distinct groups of predators is not always obvious. In this review, we compare foraging activities of trap-building predators (mainly pit-building antlions and web-building spiders), a specific group of sit-and-wait predators that construct traps as a foraging device, with those of widely-foraging predators. We refer to modifications of the trap characteristics as analogous to changes in foraging intensity. Our review illustrates that the responses of trap-building and widely-foraging predators to different internal and external factors, such as hunger level, conspecific density and predation threat are quite similar, calling for additional studies of foraging theory using trap-building predators. In each chapter of this review, we summarize the response of trap-building predators to a different factor, while contrasting it with the equivalent response characterizing widely-foraging predators. We provide here evidence that the behaviour of trap-building predators is not stereotypic or fixed as was once commonly accepted, rather it can vary greatly, depending on the individual's internal state and its interactions with external environmental factors.
TL;DR: This synthesis follows previous pioneering reviews addressing specific aspects of male costs, but strives to summarize all known male reproductive cost types more comprehensively, including their classification.
Abstract: Until 30 years ago, the emphasis on reproductive costs for males was mainly on costs related to mate searching, courtship and fighting with rival males. However, costs for males are substantial and varied and often resemble the more thoroughly studied female reproductive costs. Costs can be referred to as trade-off costs, where investment in reproductive activity comes at the expense of another important activity or fitness component. Investment in reproduction at the expense of longevity and future reproduction is the ultimate cost, because it affects fitness directly. In contrast, flawed performance (e.g., of the immune system) is perceived as a mechanistic trade-off, because it affects fitness indirectly through a mediator (i.e., parasites). Finally, direct costs refer to direct measurements of the energy expenditure during involvement in reproduction-related activities. Both direct and mechanistic trade-off costs often result in decreased longevity compared to unmated males (an ultimate cost). Males incur costs during different reproductive phases: before copulation, when producing sperm, while searching for, courting and copulating with females, and subsequently when guarding females or taking care of offspring. This synthesis follows previous pioneering reviews addressing specific aspects of male costs, but strives to summarize all known male reproductive cost types more comprehensively, including their classification. We suggest several directions for targeted future research. While costs for males have been fairly well described, it is now necessary to uncover the ecological and evolutionary factors responsible for differences between closely related species and systems and to better link between directly-measured costs, mechanistic trade-off costs and ultimate trade-off costs.
TL;DR: It is postulate that low-quality nutrition reduces growth rates, promotes a relative decline in reproductive rates and thus prolongs life, and points to a continuum of slow-to-fast life-history strategies.
Abstract: Aim Longevity is an important life-history trait, directly linked to the core attributes of fitness (reproduction and survival), yet large-scale comparative studies quantifying its implications for the ecology and life history of ectotherms are scarce. We tested the allometry of longevity in squamates and the tuatara, and determined how longevity is related to key environmental characteristics and lifehistory traits. Predictions based on life-history theory are expected to hold true for ectotherms, similarly to mammals and birds. Location World-wide. Methods We assembled from the literature a dataset of the maximum longevities of more than a thousand squamate species, representing c. 10% of their known species diversity, their phylogenetic relationships and multiple life-history and ecological variables. Correcting for phylogeny, we modelled the link between squamate longevity and both key life-history traits, such as body mass and age at first reproduction, and important environmental factors, such as latitude and primary productivity within species distributional ranges. Results Large-bodied species live for longer than small ones, but body size explains far less of the variance in longevity than it does in mammals and birds. Accounting for body size, squamate brood frequency is negatively correlated with longevity, while age at first reproduction is positively correlated with longevity. This points to a continuum of slow-to-fast life-history strategies. Squamates in high latitudes and cold regions live for longer, probably because a shorter season of activity translates to slower development, older age at first reproduction and hence to increased longevity. Individuals live longer in captivity than in the wild. Herbivorous and omnivorous squamates live for longer than carnivorous ones. We postulate that low-quality nutrition reduces growth rates, promotes a relative decline in reproductive rates and thus prolongs life.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the simulation model used to test the relative success of an ambush and an active predator changes as a function of the relative velocity and movement directionality of prey and active predator is a better predictor of encounter rates than previous studies.
Abstract: Various foraging modes are employed by predators in nature, ranging from ambush to active predation. Although the foraging mode may be limited by physiological constraints, other factors, such as prey behavior and distribution, may come into play. Using a simulation model, we tested to what extent the relative success of an ambush and an active predator changes as a function of the relative velocity and movement directionality of prey and active predator. In accordance with previous studies, we found that when both active predator and prey use nondirectional movement, the active mode is advantageous. However, as movement becomes more directional, this advantage diminishes gradually to 0. Previous theoretical studies assumed that animal movement is nondirectional; however, recent field observations show that in fact animal movement usually has some component of directionality. We therefore suggest that our simulation is a better predictor of encounter rates than previous studies. Furthermore, we show that as long as the active predator cannot move faster than its prey, it has little or no advantage over the ambush predator. However, as the active predator's velocity increases, its advantage increases sharply.
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The main focus in MUCKE is on cleaning large scale Web image corpora and on proposing image representations which are closer to the human interpretation of images.
Abstract: MUCKE aims to mine a large volume of images, to structure them conceptually and to use this conceptual structuring in order to improve large-scale image retrieval. The last decade witnessed important progress concerning low-level image representations. However, there are a number problems which need to be solved in order to unleash the full potential of image mining in applications. The central problem with low-level representations is the mismatch between them and the human interpretation of image content. This problem can be instantiated, for instance, by the incapability of existing descriptors to capture spatial relationships between the concepts represented or by their incapability to convey an explanation of why two images are similar in a content-based image retrieval framework. We start by assessing existing local descriptors for image classification and by proposing to use co-occurrence matrices to better capture spatial relationships in images. The main focus in MUCKE is on cleaning large scale Web image corpora and on proposing image representations which are closer to the human interpretation of images. Consequently, we introduce methods which tackle these two problems and compare results to state of the art methods. Note: some aspects of this deliverable are withheld at this time as they are pending review. Please contact the authors for a preview.
TL;DR: In this article, applied linear regression models are used for linear regression in the context of quality control in quality control systems, and the results show that linear regression is effective in many applications.
Abstract: (1991). Applied Linear Regression Models. Journal of Quality Technology: Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 76-77.
TL;DR: The results of the test functions prove that the proposed ALO algorithm is able to provide very competitive results in terms of improved exploration, local optima avoidance, exploitation, and convergence, showing that this algorithm has merits in solving constrained problems with diverse search spaces.
Abstract: The Ant Lion Optimizer inspired by the hunting mechanism of antlions is proposed.The ALO algorithm is benchmarked on 29 well-known test functions.The results on the unimodal functions show the superior exploitation of ALO.The exploratory ability of ALO is confirmed by the results on multimodal functions.The results on real problems confirm the performance of ALO in practice. This paper proposes a novel nature-inspired algorithm called Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO). The ALO algorithm mimics the hunting mechanism of antlions in nature. Five main steps of hunting prey such as the random walk of ants, building traps, entrapment of ants in traps, catching preys, and re-building traps are implemented. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked in three phases. Firstly, a set of 19 mathematical functions is employed to test different characteristics of ALO. Secondly, three classical engineering problems (three-bar truss design, cantilever beam design, and gear train design) are solved by ALO. Finally, the shapes of two ship propellers are optimized by ALO as challenging constrained real problems. In the first two test phases, the ALO algorithm is compared with a variety of algorithms in the literature. The results of the test functions prove that the proposed algorithm is able to provide very competitive results in terms of improved exploration, local optima avoidance, exploitation, and convergence. The ALO algorithm also finds superior optimal designs for the majority of classical engineering problems employed, showing that this algorithm has merits in solving constrained problems with diverse search spaces. The optimal shapes obtained for the ship propellers demonstrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm in solving real problems with unknown search spaces as well. Note that the source codes of the proposed ALO algorithm are publicly available at http://www.alimirjalili.com/ALO.html.
TL;DR: How insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology are explored, including limits to species' distribution and abundance and relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.
Abstract: Ecology Letters (2012) Abstract Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual’s fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population’s average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species’ distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.