Jennifer M. Jacobs
Other affiliations: University of Florida, Durham University, University of Nebraska–Lincoln ...read more
Bio: Jennifer M. Jacobs is an academic researcher from University of New Hampshire. The author has contributed to research in topics: Water content & Climate change. The author has an hindex of 32, co-authored 137 publications receiving 3748 citations. Previous affiliations of Jennifer M. Jacobs include University of Florida & Durham University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, daily surface soil moisture sampling at 90-140 locations were conducted in four fields in the Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa, where various combinations of soils, vegetation, and topography characterize the fields.
Abstract: Evaluation of air- or space-borne remote sensors measuring soil moisture requires strategic ground-based sampling. As part of the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), daily surface soil moisture sampling at 90–140 locations were conducted in four fields in Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa. Various combinations of soils, vegetation, and topography characterize the fields. Depending on the field’s characteristics and soil moisture content, 3–32 independent measurements were necessary to capture the field mean volumetric soil moisture with a F2% bias and 95% confidence interval. Validation of the retrieved soil moisture products from the aircraft microwave instruments using the average of 14 samples per field is more appropriate for dry ( 25% volumetric soil moisture) range than for intermediate soil moisture range. Time stability analysis showed that an appropriately selected single sampling point could provide similar accuracy across a range of soil moisture conditions. Analyses based on landscape position (depression, hilltop, steep slope, and mild slope) showed that locations with mild slopes consistently exhibit time stable features. Hilltop and steep slope locations consistently underestimated mean field soil moisture. Soils parameters could not be used to identify time stable features as sampling locations with relatively high sand content consistently underestimated the field mean while those locations with relatively high clay content consistently overestimated the field mean. However, the slope position characterization of time stable features was enhanced using soils properties. The mild slope locations having the best time-stable features are those with moderate to moderately high clay content as compare to the field
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used regression methods to estimate PM bulk surface conductance, modified Priestley-Taylor (PT), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), and pan evaporation (Ep)) using eddy correlation methods.
Abstract: Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was measured at 30-min resolution over a 19-month period (September 28, 2000–April 23, 2002) from a nonirrigated pasture site in Florida, USA, using eddy correlation methods. The relative magnitude of measured ETa (about 66% of long-term annual precipitation at the study site) indicates the importance of accurate ETa estimates for water resources planning. The time and cost associated with direct measurements of ETa and the rarity of historical measurements of ETa make the use of methods relying on more easily obtainable data desirable. Several such methods (Penman–Monteith (PM), modified Priestley–Taylor (PT), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), and pan evaporation (Ep)) were related to measured ETa using regression methods to estimate PM bulk surface conductance, PT a ,E T 0 vegetation coefficient, and Ep pan coefficient. The PT method, where the PT a is a function of green-leaf area index (LAI) and solar radiation, provided the best relation with ETa (standard error (SE) for daily ETa of 0.11 mm). The PM method, in which the bulk surface conductance was a function of net radiation and vapor-pressure deficit, was slightly less effective (SEZ0.15 mm) than the PT method. Vegetation coefficients for the ET0 method (SEZ0.29 mm) were found to be a simple function of LAI. Pan coefficients for the Ep method (SEZ 0.40 mm) were found to be a function of LAI and Ep. Historical or future meteorological, LAI, and pan evaporation data from the study site could be used, along with the relations developed within this study, to provide estimates of ETa in the absence of direct measurements of ETa. Additionally, relations among PM, PT, and ET0 methods and ETa can provide estimates of ETa in other, environmentally similar, pasture settings for which meteorological and LAI data can be obtained or estimated. q 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed field scale spatio-temporal variability of root zone soil moisture using theta probe measurements of the volumetric soil moisture profile data were used to analyze statistical moments and time stability and validate soil moisture predicted by a simple physical model simulation.
Abstract: Remote sensing of soil moisture effectively provides soil moisture at a large scale, but does not explain highly heterogeneous soil moisture characteristics within remote sensing footprints. In this study, field scale spatio-temporal variability of root zone soil moisture was analyzed. During the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), daily soil moisture profiles (i.e., 0–6, 5–11, 15–21, and 25–31 cm) were measured in two fields in Walnut Creek watershed, Ames, Iowa, USA. Theta probe measurements of the volumetric soil moisture profile data were used to analyze statistical moments and time stability and to validate soil moisture predicted by a simple physical model simulation. For all depths, the coefficient of variation of soil moisture is well explained by the mean soil moisture using an exponential relationship. The simple model simulated very similar variability patterns as those observed. As soil depth increases, soil moisture distributions shift from skewed to normal patterns. At the surface depth, the soil moisture during dry down is log-normally distributed, while the soil moisture is normally distributed after rainfall. At all depths below the surface, the normal distribution captures the soil moisture variability for all conditions. Time stability analyses show that spatial patterns of sampling points are preserved for all depths and that time stability of surface measurements is a good indicator of subsurface time stability. The most time stable sampling sites estimate the field average root zone soil moisture value within ±2.1% volumetric soil moisture.
TL;DR: In this paper, a strong relationship between carbon uptake and transpiration is understood to be a function of available energy and aerodynamic and canopy conductances in forested systems, and the ability to characterize forest response to anthropogenic or natural variability, as such analyses require robust quantitative models.
Abstract: Interactions among available energy, water dynamics, and nutrients are clearly critical to defining ecosystem function. The linkage between water and carbon dioxide exchanges in the plant and atmosphere continuum is at the heart of this dynamic. In forested systems, a strong relationship between carbon uptake and transpiration is understood to be a function of available energy and aerodynamic and canopy conductances. Holistically linking ecosystem properties to stand development and selection of community composition has long been a topic of theoretical discussion. However, few mechanistic means exist to assess these relationships. This, in turn, challenges the ability to characterize forest response to anthropogenic or natural variability, as such analyses require robust quantitative models.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed daily evapotranspiration at 18 sites having measured DET and ancillary climate data and then used these data to compare the performance of three common methods for estimating potential evapOTranspiration (PET): the Turc method (Tc), the Priestley-Taylor method (PT) and the Penman-Monteith method (PM).
Abstract: summary We analyzed observed daily evapotranspiration (DET) at 18 sites having measured DET and ancillary climate data and then used these data to compare the performance of three common methods for estimating potential evapotranspiration (PET): the Turc method (Tc), the Priestley–Taylor method (PT) and the Penman–Monteith method (PM). The sites were distributed throughout the State of Florida and represent a variety of land cover types: open water (3), marshland (4), grassland/pasture (4), citrus (2) and forest (5). Not surprisingly, the highest DET values occurred at the open water sites, ranging from an average of 3.3 mm d � 1 in the winter to 5.3 mm d � 1 in the spring. DET at the marsh sites was also high, ranging from 2.7 mm d � 1 in winter to 4.4 mm d � 1 in summer. The lowest DET occurred in the winter and fall seasons at
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a synthesis of past research on the role of soil moisture for the climate system, based both on modelling and observational studies, focusing on soil moisture-temperature and soil moistureprecipitation feedbacks, and their possible modifications with climate change.
Abstract: Soil moisture is a key variable of the climate system. It constrains plant transpiration and photosynthesis in several regions of the world, with consequent impacts on the water, energy and biogeochemical cycles. Moreover it is a storage component for precipitation and radiation anomalies, inducing persistence in the climate system. Finally, it is involved in a number of feedbacks at the local, regional and global scales, and plays a major role in climate-change projections. In this review, we provide a synthesis of past research on the role of soil moisture for the climate system, based both on modelling and observational studies. We focus on soil moisture–temperature and soil moisture–precipitation feedbacks, and their possible modifications with climate change. We also highlight further impacts of soil moisture on climate, and the state of research regarding the validation of the relevant processes. There are promises for major advances in this research field in coming years thanks to the development of new validation datasets and multi-model initiatives. However, the availability of ground observations continues to be critical in limiting progress and should therefore strongly be fostered at the international level. Exchanges across disciplines will also be essential for bridging current knowledge gaps in this field. This is of key importance given the manifold impacts of soil moisture on climate, and their relevance for climate-change projections. A better understanding and quantification of the relevant processes would significantly help to reduce uncertainties in future-climate scenarios, in particular with regard to changes in climate variability and extreme events, as well as ecosystem and agricultural impacts.
TL;DR: A forum to review, analyze and stimulate the development, testing and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies at regional, national and global scales as mentioned in this paper, which contributes to real-time policy analysis and development as national and international policies and agreements are discussed.
Abstract: ▶ Addresses a wide range of timely environment, economic and energy topics ▶ A forum to review, analyze and stimulate the development, testing and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies at regional, national and global scales ▶ Contributes to real-time policy analysis and development as national and international policies and agreements are discussed and promulgated ▶ 94% of authors who answered a survey reported that they would definitely publish or probably publish in the journal again
Soil enzymes: Kuprevich, V. F. & Shcherbakova, T. A.: Translated from the Russian edition (1966), published by the Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre, New Delhi 1971. 392 pp., offset printing from type script, paper cover. Obtainable from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22151
TL;DR: The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L.
Abstract: B6nassy, C., 1955. R6marques sur deux Aphelinid6s: Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron et Aphytis proclia Walker. Annls l~piphyt. 6: 11-17. Lord, F. T. & MacPhee, A. W., 1953. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia II. Oyster shell scale. Can. Ent. 79: 196-209. Pickett, A. D., 1946. A progress report on long term spray programs. Rep. Nova Scotia Fruit Grow. Ass. 83 : 27-31. Pickett, A. D., 1967. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV. Can. Ent. 97: 816-821. Tothill, J. D., 1918. The predacious mite Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L. Agric. Gaz. Can. 5 : 234-239.
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors survey the basic theories, observational methods, satellite algorithms, and land surface models for terrestrial evapotranspiration, including a long-term variability and trends perspective.
Abstract:  This review surveys the basic theories, observational methods, satellite algorithms, and land surface models for terrestrial evapotranspiration, E (or λE, i.e., latent heat flux), including a long-term variability and trends perspective. The basic theories used to estimate E are the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST), the Bowen ratio method, and the Penman-Monteith equation. The latter two theoretical expressions combine MOST with surface energy balance. Estimates of E can differ substantially between these three approaches because of their use of different input data. Surface and satellite-based measurement systems can provide accurate estimates of diurnal, daily, and annual variability of E. But their estimation of longer time variability is largely not established. A reasonable estimate of E as a global mean can be obtained from a surface water budget method, but its regional distribution is still rather uncertain. Current land surface models provide widely different ratios of the transpiration by vegetation to total E. This source of uncertainty therefore limits the capability of models to provide the sensitivities of E to precipitation deficits and land cover change.