Other affiliations: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, École Normale Supérieure, Linköping University
Bio: Josef Bigun is an academic researcher from Halmstad University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biometrics & Iris recognition. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 202 publications receiving 6676 citations. Previous affiliations of Josef Bigun include École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne & École Normale Supérieure.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The theory is developed for the case when orientation computations are necessary at all local neighborhoods of the n-dimensional Euclidean space and a certainty measure, based on the error of the fit, is proposed.
Abstract: The problem of detection of orientation in finite dimensional Euclidean spaces is solved in the least squares sense. The theory is developed for the case when such orientation computations are necessary at all local neighborhoods of the n-dimensional Euclidean space. Detection of orientation is shown to correspond to fitting an axis or a plane to the Fourier transform of an n-dimensional structure. The solution of this problem is related to the solution of a well-known matrix eigenvalue problem. The computations can be performed in the spatial domain without actually doing a Fourier transformation. Along with the orientation estimate, a certainty measure, based on the error of the fit, is proposed. Two applications in image analysis are considered: texture segmentation and optical flow. The theory is verified by experiments which confirm accurate orientation estimates and reliable certainty measures in the presence of noise. The comparative results indicate that the theory produces algorithms computing robust texture features as well as optical flow. >
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: The problem of optimal detection of orientation in arbitrary neighborhoods is solved in the least squares sense and it is shown that this corresponds to fitting an axis in the Fourier domain of the n-dimensional neighborhood, the solution of which is a well known solution of a matrix eigenvalue problem.
Abstract: The problem of optimal detection of orientation in arbitrary neighborhoods is solved in the least squares sense. It is shown that this corresponds to fitting an axis in the Fourier domain of the n-dimensional neighborhood, the solution of which is a well known solution of a matrix eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalues are the variance or inertia with respect to the axes given by their respective eigen vectors. The orientation is taken as the axis given by the least eigenvalue. Moreover it is shown that the necessary computations can be pursued in the spatial domain without doing a Fourier transformation. An implementation for 2-D is presented. Two certainty measures are given corresponding to the orientation estimate. These are the relative or the absolute distances between the two eigenvalues, revealing whether the fitted axis is much better than an axis orthogonal to it. The result of the implementation is verified by experiments which confirm an accurate orientation estimation and reliable certainty measure in the presence of additive noise at high level as well as low levels.
TL;DR: A robust face detection technique along with mouth localization, processing every frame in real time (video rate), is presented and "liveness" verification barriers are proposed as applications for which a significant amount of computation is avoided when estimating motion.
Abstract: A robust face detection technique along with mouth localization, processing every frame in real time (video rate), is presented. Moreover, it is exploited for motion analysis onsite to verify "liveness" as well as to achieve lip reading of digits. A methodological novelty is the suggested quantized angle features ("quangles") being designed for illumination invariance without the need for preprocessing (e.g., histogram equalization). This is achieved by using both the gradient direction and the double angle direction (the structure tensor angle), and by ignoring the magnitude of the gradient. Boosting techniques are applied in a quantized feature space. A major benefit is reduced processing time (i.e., that the training of effective cascaded classifiers is feasible in very short time, less than 1 h for data sets of order 104). Scale invariance is implemented through the use of an image scale pyramid. We propose "liveness" verification barriers as applications for which a significant amount of computation is avoided when estimating motion. Novel strategies to avert advanced spoofing attempts (e.g., replayed videos which include person utterances) are demonstrated. We present favorable results on face detection for the YALE face test set and competitive results for the CMU-MIT frontal face test set as well as on "liveness" verification barriers.
TL;DR: The proposed elastic graph matching method applied to the authentication of human faces where candidates claim an identity that is to be checked compares favorably with two methods that require a prior geometric face normalization, namely the synergetic and eigenface approaches.
Abstract: Elastic graph matching has been proposed as a practical implementation of dynamic link matching, which is a neural network with dynamically evolving links between a reference model and an input image. Each node of the graph contains features that characterize the neighborhood of its location in the image. The elastic graph matching usually consists of two consecutive steps, namely a matching with a rigid grid, followed by a deformation of the grid, which is actually the elastic part. The deformation step is introduced in order to allow for some deformation, rotation, and scaling of the object to be matched. This method is applied here to the authentication of human faces where candidates claim an identity that is to be checked. The matching error as originally suggested is not powerful enough to provide satisfying results in this case. We introduce an automatic weighting of the nodes according to their significance. We also explore the significance of the elastic deformation for an application of face-based person authentication. We compare performance results obtained with and without the second matching step. Results show that the deformation step slightly increases the performance, but has lower influence than the weighting of the nodes. The best results are obtained with the combination of both aspects. The results provided by the proposed method compare favorably with two methods that require a prior geometric face normalization, namely the synergetic and eigenface approaches.
TL;DR: In this work, existing approaches for fingerprint image-quality estimation are reviewed, including the rationale behind the published measures and visual examples showing their behavior under different quality conditions, and a selection offinger image- quality estimation algorithms are tested.
Abstract: One of the open issues in fingerprint verification is the lack of robustness against image-quality degradation. Poor-quality images result in spurious and missing features, thus degrading the performance of the overall system. Therefore, it is important for a fingerprint recognition system to estimate the quality and validity of the captured fingerprint images. In this work, we review existing approaches for fingerprint image-quality estimation, including the rationale behind the published measures and visual examples showing their behavior under different quality conditions. We have also tested a selection of fingerprint image-quality estimation algorithms. For the experiments, we employ the BioSec multimodal baseline corpus, which includes 19 200 fingerprint images from 200 individuals acquired in two sessions with three different sensors. The behavior of the selected quality measures is compared, showing high correlation between them in most cases. The effect of low-quality samples in the verification performance is also studied for a widely available minutiae-based fingerprint matching system.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an up-to-date critical survey of still-and video-based face recognition research, and provide some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces.
Abstract: As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention, especially during the past several years. At least two reasons account for this trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after 30 years of research. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. For example, recognition of face images acquired in an outdoor environment with changes in illumination and/or pose remains a largely unsolved problem. In other words, current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system.This paper provides an up-to-date critical survey of still- and video-based face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as psychophysical studies, system evaluation, and issues of illumination and pose variation are covered.
TL;DR: These comparisons are primarily empirical, and concentrate on the accuracy, reliability, and density of the velocity measurements; they show that performance can differ significantly among the techniques the authors implemented.
Abstract: While different optical flow techniques continue to appear, there has been a lack of quantitative evaluation of existing methods. For a common set of real and synthetic image sequences, we report the results of a number of regularly cited optical flow techniques, including instances of differential, matching, energy-based, and phase-based methods. Our comparisons are primarily empirical, and concentrate on the accuracy, reliability, and density of the velocity measurements; they show that performance can differ significantly among the techniques we implemented.
TL;DR: A brief overview of the field of biometrics is given and some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns are summarized.
Abstract: A wide variety of systems requires reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual requesting their services. The purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legitimate user and no one else. Examples of such applications include secure access to buildings, computer systems, laptops, cellular phones, and ATMs. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or, simply, biometrics, refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. By using biometrics, it is possible to confirm or establish an individual's identity based on "who she is", rather than by "what she possesses" (e.g., an ID card) or "what she remembers" (e.g., a password). We give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.
TL;DR: This paper investigates the properties of a metric between two distributions, the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD), for content-based image retrieval, and compares the retrieval performance of the EMD with that of other distances.
Abstract: We investigate the properties of a metric between two distributions, the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD), for content-based image retrieval. The EMD is based on the minimal cost that must be paid to transform one distribution into the other, in a precise sense, and was first proposed for certain vision problems by Peleg, Werman, and Rom. For image retrieval, we combine this idea with a representation scheme for distributions that is based on vector quantization. This combination leads to an image comparison framework that often accounts for perceptual similarity better than other previously proposed methods. The EMD is based on a solution to the transportation problem from linear optimization, for which efficient algorithms are available, and also allows naturally for partial matching. It is more robust than histogram matching techniques, in that it can operate on variable-length representations of the distributions that avoid quantization and other binning problems typical of histograms. When used to compare distributions with the same overall mass, the EMD is a true metric. In this paper we focus on applications to color and texture, and we compare the retrieval performance of the EMD with that of other distances.