scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Judith C. Baer

Other affiliations: New York University
Bio: Judith C. Baer is an academic researcher from Rutgers University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Poison control & National Comorbidity Survey. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 28 publications receiving 2328 citations. Previous affiliations of Judith C. Baer include New York University.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the effects of three dimensions of HR systems (skillsenhancing, motivationenhancing and opportunity-enhancing) on the ability-motivation-opportunity model.
Abstract: Drawing on the ability-motivation-opportunity model, this meta-analysis examined the effects of three dimensions of HR systems—skills-enhancing, motivation-enhancing, and opportunity-enhancing—on p...

1,624 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effect size of maltreatment and insecure attachment across studies and found that child maltreatment is one of the most important causes of insecure/disorganized attachment.
Abstract: The validity of the insecure/disorganized attachment pattern has been clearly established in over 80 studies with more than 100 samples. However, given that child maltreatment is considered one of the most important causes of insecure/disorganized attachment, it is notable that few studies have been published specifically examining the maltreatment/insecure attachment hypothesis. The purpose of this paper was to review the research findings and conduct a meta‐analysis to examine the effect size of maltreatment and insecure attachment across studies. A second goal was to conduct a subpopulation analysis to investigate effect size by type of maltreatment. Following a literature search which yielded 25 articles, we identified eight studies (n = 791) that: (a) consisted of children who experienced different types of maltreatment including cases of malnutrition and failure‐to‐thrive, (b) consisted of children under 48 months of age, (c) used the Strange Situation or a modification of it to measure attachment, ...

248 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to investigate differences in symptomatology in a nonclinical, national representative sample of youths, and found important differences within the externalizing symptom atology construct and class differences across racial and ethnic groups, gender, age categories and several behavior outcomes.
Abstract: Social work researchers often use variable-centered approaches such as regression and factor analysis. However, these methods do not capture important aspects of relationships that are often imbedded in the heterogeneity of samples. Latent class analysis (LCA) is one of several person-centered approaches that can capture heterogeneity within and between groups. This method is illustrated in the present study, in which LCA is used to explicate differences in symptomatology in a nonclinical, national representative sample of youths. Data (N= 14,738) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed using externalizing and internalizing behavioral constructs and then validated against a number of sociodemographic characteristics and behavior outcomes typically associated with type and severity of symptomatology. Findings revealed important differences within the externalizing symptomatology construct and class differences across racial and ethnic groups, gender, age categories, and several behavior outcomes. Research and clinical implications on the importance of modeling heterogeneity using a person-centered approach are discussed. KEY WORDS: Add Health; latent class analysis; mixture modeling; person-centered analysis ********** Attention to the variability of human experience is fundamental to social work research and practice. Issues such as differences in prevalence, treatment effects, coping strategies, and normal within-group variations permeate both practice and research agendas. In addition, social work is often concerned with racial and ethnic differences, sociodemographic characteristics, and other variables that may influence or modify focal study relationships (Kataoka, Zhang, & Wells, 2002). Thus, capturing identifiable differences in subpopulations is an important area of social work inquiry. Traditionally, much research, including protocols and evidence-based practice, has been based on variable-oriented methods that capture information about relationships between the variables of interest for the overall sample. In contrast, person-oriented methods capture information at the personal level, enabling researchers to distinguish patterns of characteristics in subgroups (Nurius & Macy, 2008). Person-oriented methods, such as latent class analysis (LCA), enable the researcher to identify important intraindividual and interindividual differences and thus model distinct configurations of heterogeneity within a given sample. Although traditional variable-level studies contain valuable information, they have also been criticized because they obscure diversity and foster the misleading and over-generalized conclusion that study findings represent the overall sample (von Eye & Bergman, 2003). A comment by Bogat, Levendosky, and von Eye (2005) illustrates this obfuscation: "[R]esearchers often write about these analyses 'as it" they say something about individuals, but they are really statements about variables" (p. 50). The importance of significant heterogeneity within subsets of populations has been noted within the larger social sciences (Costello, Mostillo, Erkanli, Keeler, & Angold, 2003). Inadequate attention to the heterogeneity inherent in the complexity of human social activity, such as the variations in symptom manifestations, or the reliance on categorical-based assessments to obtain a particular diagnosis by dichotomizing symptomatology as either being present or not (Krueger & Piasecki, 2002) has resulted in a number of important phenomena left largely unexplored. LCA comes under the rubric of structural equation modeling and is a type of person-centered analysis that uses finite mixture modeling to empirically determine whether interrelationships exist among observed variables that explain the underlying (that is, latent) phenomena (McCutcheon, 1987). Latent variables are statistically inferred from the direct measures, as in factor analysis. …

94 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The collective findings of 23 studies published between 1996 and 2001 suggested that trauma first documented as occurring in childhood is associated with later life mental and physical health.
Abstract: This article is an examination of the empirical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, which investigated samples of adults aged 50 and older, who had experienced trauma, in childhood with follow-up of the impact on later life mental and physical health. Articles were identified through searches of EBSCO host databases, such as PubMed, SocioIndex, and PsychoLit. Search terms such as childhood trauma and cumulative trauma were paired with the term older adults in varying combinations. The collective findings of 23 studies published between 1996 and 2001 suggested that trauma first documented as occurring in childhood is associated with later life mental and physical health. Methodological limitations and future directions as well as recommendations for practice, policy, and research with older adults and trauma are delineated. Language: en

91 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings support the redundancy thesis that distress is virtually redundant with symptoms of persistent sadness, even in the absence of major depression, and impairment is almost always entailed by major depression-level symptoms, which means the clinical significance criterion does not substantially reduce the prevalence ofmajor depression in the community.
Abstract: ObjectiveTo reduce false positive diagnoses, DSM-IV added a clinical significance criterion to many diagnostic criteria sets requiring that symptoms cause significant distress or impairment. The DSM-V Task Force is considering whether clinical significance should remain a diagnostic threshold or become a separate dimension, as it is in ICD. Yet, the criterion's effectiveness in validly reducing the prevalence of specific disorders remains unclear. Critics have argued that for some categories, notably major depression, the criterion is redundant with symptoms, which are inherently distressing or impairing. The authors empirically evaluated the criterion's effect on the prevalence of major depression in the community. This report also considers more broadly the relationship of symptoms to impairment in diagnosis. MethodSubjects were respondents, aged 18 to 54 years, who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=6,707). The effect of the clinical significance criterion's distress and imp...

89 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal Article

5,680 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Roni Berger1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors address potential effects on reflexivity of researcher's social position (e.g., gender, age, race, immigration status, sexual orientation), personal experiences, and political and professional beliefs).
Abstract: This article addresses potential effects on reflexivity of researcher’s social position (e.g. gender, age, race, immigration status, sexual orientation), personal experiences, and political and professional beliefs. Because reflexivity is a major strategy for quality control in qualitative research, understanding how it may be impacted by the characteristics and experiences of the researcher is of paramount importance. Benefits and challenges to reflexivity under three types of researcher’s position are discussed and illustrated by means of case examples: (1) reflexivity when researcher shares the experience of study participants, (2) reflexivity when researcher moves from the position of an outsider to the position of an insider in the course of the study, and (3) reflexivity when researcher has no personal familiarity or experience with what is being studied. Strategies are offered for harvesting the benefits of researcher’s familiarity with the subject and for curbing its potentially negative effects. ...

2,093 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This paper presents a framework for studying the concepts of fit and flexibility in the field of Strategic Human Resource Management focusing on HRM practices, employee skills, and employee behaviors and reviews past conceptual and empirical work within that framework.
Abstract: This paper presents a framework for studying the concepts of fit and flexibility in the field of Strategic Human Resource Management (Strategic HRM) focusing on HRM practices, employee skills, and employee behaviors and reviews past conceptual and empirical work within that framework. A model of Strategic HRM is presented and this model is used to explore the concepts of fit and flexibility as they apply to Strategic HRM. The concepts of resource and coordination flexibility are applied to Strategic HRM, and the implications of the framework for both the practice of and research on Strategic HRM are discussed.

1,117 citations

Book
01 Nov 2009
TL;DR: It is tested whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of Mental illness and the criminal justice system.
Abstract: We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of Mental illness and the criminal justice system. In T. L. Scheid T. N. Brown (Eds.), A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories. Find 9780521567633 A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health : Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems by Horwitz et al at over 30 bookstores. Buy, rent. A review of mental health problems in fathers following the birth of a child. for the study of mental health:Social contexts, theories, and systems (2nd ed., pp.

842 citations