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Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

Bio: Krzysztof Matyjaszewski is an academic researcher from Carnegie Mellon University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Atom-transfer radical-polymerization & Polymerization. The author has an hindex of 169, co-authored 1431 publications receiving 128585 citations. Previous affiliations of Krzysztof Matyjaszewski include University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill & Lodz University of Technology.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of recent mechanistic developments in the field of controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) is presented, with particular emphasis on structure-reactivity correlations and "rules" for catalyst selection in ATRP, for chain transfer agent selection in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and for the selection of an appropriate mediating agent in stable free radical polymerisation (SFRP), including organic and transition metal persistent radicals.

2,869 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current status and future perspectives in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are presented in this paper, with a special emphasis on mechanistic understanding of ATRP, recent synthetic and process development, and new controlled polymer architectures enabled by ATRP.
Abstract: Current status and future perspectives in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are presented. Special emphasis is placed on mechanistic understanding of ATRP, recent synthetic and process development, and new controlled polymer architectures enabled by ATRP. New hybrid materials based on organic/inorganic systems and natural/synthetic polymers are presented. Some current and forthcoming applications are described.

2,188 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extension of ATRA to atom transfer radical addition, ATRP, provided a new and efficient way to conduct controlled/living radical polymerization as mentioned in this paper, using a simple alkyl halide, R-X (X = Cl and Br), as an initiator and a transition metal species complexed by suitable ligand(s), M t n /L x, e.g., CuX/2,2'-bipyridine, as a catalyst.
Abstract: An extension of atom transfer radical addition, ATRA, to atom transfer radical polymerization, ATRP, provided a new and efficient way to conduct controlled/living radical polymerization. By using a simple alkyl halide, R-X (X = Cl and Br), as an initiator and a transition metal species complexed by suitable ligand(s), M t n /L x , e.g., CuX/2,2'-bipyridine, as a catalyst, ATRP of vinyl monomers such as styrenes and (meth)acrylates proceeded in a living fashion, yielding polymers with degrees of polymerization predetermined by Δ[M]/[I] 0 up to M n ≃ 10 5 and low polydispersities, 1.1 < M w /M n < 1.5. The participation of free radical intermediates was supported by analysis of the end groups and the stereochemistry of the polymerization. The general principle and the mechanism of ATRP are elucidated. Various factors affecting the ATRP process are discussed.

1,628 citations


Cited by
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01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The conversion of these bench stable, benign catalysts to redox-active species upon irradiation with simple household lightbulbs represents a remarkably chemoselective trigger to induce unique and valuable catalytic processes.
Abstract: A fundamental aim in the field of catalysis is the development of new modes of small molecule activation. One approach toward the catalytic activation of organic molecules that has received much attention recently is visible light photoredox catalysis. In a general sense, this approach relies on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to engage in single-electron-transfer (SET) processes with organic substrates upon photoexcitation with visible light. Many of the most commonly employed visible light photocatalysts are polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium and iridium, and are typified by the complex tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II), or Ru(bpy)32+ (Figure 1). These complexes absorb light in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum to give stable, long-lived photoexcited states.1,2 The lifetime of the excited species is sufficiently long (1100 ns for Ru(bpy)32+) that it may engage in bimolecular electron-transfer reactions in competition with deactivation pathways.3 Although these species are poor single-electron oxidants and reductants in the ground state, excitation of an electron affords excited states that are very potent single-electron-transfer reagents. Importantly, the conversion of these bench stable, benign catalysts to redox-active species upon irradiation with simple household lightbulbs represents a remarkably chemoselective trigger to induce unique and valuable catalytic processes. Open in a separate window Figure 1 Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes: versatile visible light photocatalysts.

6,252 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work develops an approach to detect noncovalent interactions in real space, based on the electron density and its derivatives, which provides a rich representation of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and steric repulsion in small molecules, molecular complexes, and solids.
Abstract: Molecular structure does not easily identify the intricate noncovalent interactions that govern many areas of biology and chemistry, including design of new materials and drugs. We develop an approach to detect noncovalent interactions in real space, based on the electron density and its derivatives. Our approach reveals the underlying chemistry that compliments the covalent structure. It provides a rich representation of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and steric repulsion in small molecules, molecular complexes, and solids. Most importantly, the method, requiring only knowledge of the atomic coordinates, is efficient and applicable to large systems, such as proteins or DNA. Across these applications, a view of nonbonded interactions emerges as continuous surfaces rather than close contacts between atom pairs, offering rich insight into the design of new and improved ligands.

5,731 citations