M. K. Roy
Bio: M. K. Roy is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Liquid crystal & Phase diagram. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 12 publications receiving 57 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the observed phase transition sequence N-SA-Nre Sre with a lowering in temperature in pure compounds of molecules with a strongly polar end group is reproduced in a mean field model which is taken as an extension of the McMillan potential.
Abstract: The observed phase transition sequence N-SA-Nre Sre with a lowering in temperature in pure compounds of molecules with a strongly polar end group is reproduced in a mean field model which is taken as an extension of the McMillan potential. This model shows how the dimers in presence of space filling monomers can account for the high temperature SA phase. As the temperature is lowered, more and more monomers form dimers leaving empty spaces and this initiates an intercalation of dimers belonging to the neighbouring layers. This intercalation is responsible for the lowering of the strength of layering interaction in a McMillan type potential and thus a reentrant nematic phase occurs. This model for the first time successfully accounts for the thickness of the low temperature smectic phase.
TL;DR: These theories essentially show that the high-temperature smectic phase is an induced phase and the reentrant nematic phase is brought about by a competition between two incommensurate lengths.
Abstract: In this paper we propose to estimate the role of chain conformations in bringing about reentrant polymorphism in a nonpolar sample of mesogens. To this end we also show that the reentrant phenomenon is built in the McMillan model, if one explicitly incorporates the e8'ect of tail-chain conformations in the molecular potential instead of treating the chains as an extension of the rigid part. The model is next utilized to predict the single reentrance I-N-Sm-N„with lowering of ternperature in a nonpolar system. I. INTRQDUCTIOlV Since the discovery of reentrant polymorphism in a binary mixture of two polar compounds, ' a large number of investigations have been carried out in this field. Liquid-crystalline systems exhibiting such reentrant polymorphism I X Sm X„-, a-nd -the double (or triple) reentrant phase sequence consist of organic molecules usually with three or four aromatic rings with ester linkages and having polar cyano or nitro-end groups. Apart from pure compounds, ' such reentrant polymorphism with a lowering of temperature is also exhibited by binary mixtures of polar-polar, ' ' polar-nonpolar, ' or even by nonpolar-nonpolar compounds. "' The last one however only shows the single reentrant phase sequence. Further, as a given homologous series is ascended the reentrant phase sequence is shown by the higher homologs (e.g. , usually by the octyloxy, nonyloxy, etc. members) which are neither very short nor very long. These findings indicate that the dipolar force plays a crucial role in the reentrant polymorphism. There are theoretical models' ' that emphasize this role of dipolar force to bring about the phase sequence. A number of theories assume some sort of bimolecular organization (dimers)' ' or even trimers or n-mers with antiparallel association that compensates (not always fully) the dipole moments. This system of dimers or n-mers together with existing monomers can bring about the desired phase sequence. Such theories can also explain the variation of layer thickness' ' as an interdigitation or reorientation' (in the case of constant layer thickness) of the component systems in a mean-field approach. These theories essentially show that the high-temperature smectic phase is an induced phase and the reentrant nematic phase is brought about by a competition between two incommensurate lengths. This two-length theory is also one of the main ingredients of the Landau theory of the phase transition developed by Prost and Barois. ' A further review of theories and experiments for reentrant nematic phases can be found in Refs. 24 and 25. However, the occurrence of single reentrance I-X-SmX„(Refs. 11 and 12) in a binary mixture of nonpolar compounds cannot possibly be due to such dipolar forces. In fact, for such systems, observation' on layering thickness shows no hint for the kind of dimerization as is found in reentrant systems with polar compounds. The above result, together with the observation that in all the systems discussed the reentrant phase usually occurs for certain members (usually eighth or ninth) of the homologous series, indicate that the tail chains should have some active role in bringing about the reentrance. Dowell proposed a lattice model for condensed phases that predicted reentrance in a single-component nonpolar system. In that model, it is seen that a segregated packing of cores beside cores and chains beside chains occurs with a lowering of temperature leading to a usual smectic phase. With further lowering of temperature, the chains become less flexible, and packing differences between the rigid cores and tail chains decrease. Thus, the need for segregated packing of rigid cores with cores (and tail chains with tail chains) is overcome by entropy of unsegregated packing, leading to the disappearance of the smectic-A phase and the appearance of the reentrant nematic phase. In other words, the Dowell model holds the change in chain configuration responsible for reentrance. We present in this section some results we have obtained on the role of chains in bringing about reentrance in a single-component nonpolar sample. As in the case of polar systems, ' ' our present study is also based on a molecular mean-field approach and the starting point, so to say, is again the McMillan model. Here, however, we show that the reentrant phenomenon is built in the McMillan model, if one explicitly incorporates the efFeet of tail-chain conformations in the molecular potential instead of treating the chains as an extension of the rigid part. The model is used next to predict the single reentrant phase sequence I-iV-Sm-X„with lowering of temperature in an idealized nonpolar system. Our results also indicate that chain conformations alone can give rise to reentrance for certain intermediate members of a homologous series only under some very restrictive conditions.
TL;DR: In this article, a mean field model for a rectangular columnar to hexagonal columnar phase transition, assuming that the molecules are biaxial in both the phases, is presented, taking the molecular cores to be tilted in a particular direction with respect to the column axis by the same angle at each lattice site.
Abstract: A mean field model for a rectangular columnar to hexagonal columnar phase transition, assuming thatthe molecules are biaxial in both the phases, is presented. The theory is developed for a face centeredrectangular lattice taking the molecular cores to be tilted in a particular direction with respect to thecolumn axis by the same angle at each lattice site. Phase diagrams for a homologous series for twovalues of biaxiality parameter are presented. With increasing temperature a phase sequence rectangular-hexagonal-nematic-isotropic is found for shorter members while for higher members of a homologousseries the nematic phase is absent in the calculated phase sequence.
TL;DR: Marcelja's theory for nematic-isotropic transitions has been extended to the case of the smectic A phase as mentioned in this paper, where members of a homologous series can be treated individually and their Sm-N, N-I transitions studied.
Abstract: Marcelja's theory for nematic-isotropic transitions has been extended to the case of the smectic A phase. In this model, members of a homologous series can be treated individually and their Sm-N, N-I transitions studied. Numerical calculations done for the first seven members of the homologous series p, p' -di-n alkoxy-azoxybenzenes reproduce for the first time the alteration in Sm-N transition temperature with the number of carbon atoms in the end chain. The observed fact that the Sm-N transition temperatures of the odd and of the even members lie on two separate smooth curves is also reproduced.
TL;DR: In this article, an extension of an earlier work by the present authors on the evenodd effect in smectic A-nematic (S-N) transition is presented, where the mean field is modified by including the contribution from the orientation independent term of the Kobayashi pair potential.
Abstract: An extension of an earlier work by the present authors on the even-odd effect in smectic A-nematic (S-N) transition is presented. The earlier model showed too large an alternation in TSN. In the present work the mean field is modified by including the contribution from the orientation independent term of the Kobayashi pair potential. Numerical calculations on three homologous series with alkyl chains, namely 4-(4′-n-alkoxybenzylideneamino) biphenyls, (p'-n-alkoxybenzoyloxy) acetophenones and PAA show a marked diminution in alternation of TSN. The present mean field, though a definite improvement over the earlier one, is still found to be inadequate quantitatively, especially for samples with very small or virtually nonexistent alternation in TSN. It seems that a purely attractive pair potential may not be adequate in explaining this aspect of S-N transition. A possible role of repulsive interaction in suppressing this ‘even-odd’ amplitude is discussed.
TL;DR: A comprehensive overview of phase transition studies can be found in this article, where the authors identify the essential key concepts and points of difficulty associated with the study of phase transitions and discuss the most widely used experimental techniques for measuring these transition properties.
Abstract: Mesogenic materials exhibit a multitude of transitions involving new phases. Studies of these phases are of importance in a wide range of scientific fields and as such have stimulated considerable theoretical and experimental efforts over the decades. This review article presents a comprehensive overview until this date of the developments in this subject. An attempt is made to identify the essential key concepts and points of difficulty associated with the study of phase transitions. The article begins with a brief introduction about the symmetry, structure and types of liquid crystalline phases. This is followed by a discussion of the distribution functions and order parameters which are considered as the basic knowledge essential for the study of ordered phases. A brief discussion of the thermodynamic properties at and in the vicinity of phase transitions, which are required to understand the molecular structure phase stability relationship, is given. The most widely used experimental techniques for measuring these transition properties are critically examined. The remaining parts of the article are concerned with the current status of the theoretical developments and experimental studies in this field. The application of the various theories to the description of isotropic liquid-uniaxial nematic, uniaxial nematic-smectic A, uniaxial nematic-biaxial nematic, smectic A–smectic C phase transitions are reviewed comprehensively. The basic ideas of Landau–de Gennes theory and its applications to study these transitions are discussed. Since the formation of liquid crystals depends on the anisotropy in the intermolecular interactions, questions concerning its role in the mesophase transitions are addressed. The hard particle, Maier-Saupe and van der Waals types of theories are reviewed. The application of density functional theory in studying mesophase transitions is described. A critical assessment of the experimental investigations concerning reentrant phase transitions in liquid crystals is made and the factors which impede its proper understanding are identified. A survey is given of existing computer simulation studies of the isotropic to nematic transition, the nematic to smectic A transition, the smectic A to hexatic S B transition, the smectic A to reentrant nematic transition, and transitions to the discotic phase. The current status of the study of phase transitions involving hexatic smectic, cholesteric, polymeric and ferroelectric liquid crystals is outlined. Finally, a range of unexplored problems and some of the areas which are in greatest need of future attention are identified.
TL;DR: In this article, the α,ω-bis (4n-alkylanilinebenzylidine-4′-oxy)alkanes have been synthesized and their transitional properties characterized.
Abstract: Eleven series of dimeric liquid crystals, namely the α,ω-bis(4-n-alkylanilinebenzylidine-4′-oxy)alkanes, have been synthesized and their transitional properties characterized. The number of methylene groups in the flexible core was varied from one to twelve while the length of the terminal alkyl chains was increased from a methyl group to a decyl substituent. The rich smectic polymorphism of this family of compounds was studied using X-ray diffraction and polarizing microscopy; it includes several examples of rare phase transitions, for example, smectic F-smectic A and crystal G-isotropic, as well as novel modulated hexatic phases based on a two dimensional lattice. The transitional properties of a given series, where the length of the terminal chain is held constant while the length and parity of the flexible spacer is varied, exhibit a pronounced alternation. For example, the entropy change at the nematic-isotropic transition exhibits a strong alternation and this has been interpreted in terms ...
TL;DR: In this article, the detailed structures of the various discotic phases and some of their important physical properties are described. But they are classified into two distinct categories, the columnar and the nematic.
Abstract: Recent studies have established that many compounds composed of disc-shaped molecules exhibit stable thermotropic liquid crystalline phases. They are now referred to as discotic liquid crystals. Structurally, most of them fall into two distinct categories, the columnar and the nematic. The columnar phase, in its simplest form, has long-range translational periodicity in two dimensions and liquid-like disorder in the third, whereas the nematic phase is an orientationally ordered arrangement of discs without any long-range translational order. This review article describes the detailed structures of the various discotic phases and some of their important physical properties.
TL;DR: In this paper, the structures of columnar mesophases that depend on the presence of either N-H⋯O, or H-O-Bonds (subsumed under the term ‘N|H|O-bonds') are reviewed.
Abstract: The structures of supramolecular columnar mesophases that depend on the presence of either N–H⋯O, or N⋯H–O– hydrogen bonds (subsumed under the term ‘N|H|O-bonds’) are reviewed. The thesis is supported that supramolecular mesogenes bridge different fields of liquid crystal research, offering the opportunity to create a unified picture of thermotropic, and lyotropic mesomorphism. With the examples of N|H|O hydrogen bond mesogenes the molecular structures of the respective mesogenes are presented, and general principles to rationally construct such molecules are discussed. A connection is drawn to systems from isolated columns as found in low molecular weight organogels. Perspectives, and outlooks for possible applications of N|H|O hydrogen bonded columnar phases are given.
TL;DR: The results point to the formation of dynamical structural defects along the columns in stacks of liquid-crystalline tetraalkoxy-substituted, metal-free phthalocyanines.
Abstract: We present a joint molecular dynamics (MD)/kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) study aimed at the atomistic description of charge transport in stacks of liquid-crystalline tetraalkoxy-substituted, metal-free phthalocyanines. The molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the major structural features of the mesophases, in particular, a phase transition around 340 K between the rectangular and hexagonal phases. Charge transport simulations based on a Monte Carlo algorithm show an increase by 2 orders of magnitude in the hole mobility when accounting for the rotational and translational dynamics. The results point to the formation of dynamical structural defects along the columns.