Other affiliations: Indian Institutes of Technology
Bio: M. Singaperumal is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Actuator & Mobile robot. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 80 publications receiving 1235 citations. Previous affiliations of M. Singaperumal include Indian Institutes of Technology.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The mechatronic aspects like the software and hardware used in an industrial environment for the control of such nonlinear actuator and the type of sensory feedback devices incorporated for obtaining better control, positioning accuracy and fast response are described.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the current application areas of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in intelligent robotic systems and devices.Design/methodology/approach – This paper analyses how actuation and sensing functions of the SMA actuator have been exploited and incorporated in micro and macro robotic devices, developed for medical and non‐medical applications. The speed of response of SMA actuator mostly depends upon its shape and size, addition and removal of heat and the bias force applied. All these factors have impact on the overall size of the robotic device and the degree of freedom (dof) obtained and hence, a comprehensive survey is made highlighting these aspects. Also described are the mechatronic aspects like the software and hardware used in an industrial environment for the control of such nonlinear actuator and the type of sensory feedback devices incorporated for obtaining better control, positioning accuracy and fast response.Findings – SMA actuators find wide ap...
TL;DR: In this paper, a magnetostrictive actuator with flexure amplifier and a magnetically biased actuator for application in high frequency flapper-nozzle servo valve is presented.
Abstract: Flapper–nozzle type Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve (EHSV) operated by conventional torque motor actuators has been used in wide range of industrial applications. As their bandwidths are limited, they are not suitable for high-speed applications. The work presented in this paper deals with the mechatronic approach for the design of a magnetostrictive actuator with flexure amplifier and a magnetically biased magnetostrictive actuator for application in high frequency flapper–nozzle servo valve. A magnetostrictive actuator has been designed, built and integrated into an existing flapper–nozzle servo valve by replacing the torque motor. Incorporating the dynamics of the magnetostrictive actuator, the dynamics of the valve was simulated. Necessary parameters for the actuator have been arrived by finite element model. No load flow characteristics are analyzed and compared with experimental values. Step response has been compared with conventional valve. The results show that the valve has satisfactory static and dynamic characteristics for applications in high-speed actuation systems.
TL;DR: The principles and performance of a confocal microscope, together with the measurement system, are described and both the intensity and the auto-focus methods are used to measure two-dimensional surface roughness by use of the system and results are presented.
Abstract: Surface topography and, in particular, roughness and form, plays an important role in determining the functional performance of engineering parts. The measurement and understanding of surface topography is rapidly attracting the attention of the physicist, the biologist and the chemist as well as the engineer. Optics in general played an important role in measurement and, with the advent of opto-mechatronics, it is once again at the forefront of measurement. In this paper, the principles and performance of a confocal microscope, together with the measurement system, are described. Suitable fixtures are developed and integrated with the computer system for generating three-dimensional surface and form data. Software for data acquisition, analysis of various parameters including new parameters and visualization of surface geometrical features has been developed. Both the intensity and the auto-focus methods are used to measure two-dimensional surface roughness by use of the system and results are presented. The measurement and characterization of three-dimensional surface topography and form error will be presented in part II of this paper.
TL;DR: In this article, an algorithm is developed for the numerical generation of 3D anisotropic surfaces with prescribed 3D surface roughness parameters using either the Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Method (NCGM) or 2-D Digital Filter method.
Abstract: Three-dimensional surface roughness of mating parts of engineering assemblies has a significant influence on their functional behaviour. Studies on load bearing capacity in elastohydrodynamic contacts, gap flow analysis in precision hydraulic assemblies using modeled 3D fluid continuum micro gap geometry, etc., have made it possible to quantify the effect of certain 3D surface roughness parameters on frictional behaviour of the assemblies. This set forth the need for artificially generated three-dimensional engineering surfaces having prescribed roughness values for a better understanding and prediction of tribological problems. In this paper, an algorithm is developed for the numerical generation of three-dimensional anisotropic surfaces with prescribed 3D surface roughness parameters. The procedures employ either the Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Method (NCGM) or 2-D Digital Filter method. The results show that both the methods can adequately produce surfaces at small correlation distances, while at higher correlation distances the NCGM yields better results. Comparison between model-simulated output and measurement results of three-dimensional surface roughness of engineering surface show a good match, supporting the validity of the model.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed recent developments in nonlinear control technologies for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in robotics and their related applications and showed that the results obtained using nonlinear controllers were far better than the former one.
Abstract: This paper reviews recent developments in nonlinear control technologies for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in robotics and their related applications. SMA possesses large hysteresis, low bandwidth, slow response, and non-linear behavior, which make them difficult to control. The fast response of the SMA actuator mostly depends upon, (1) type of controller, (2) rate of addition and removal of heat, and (3) shape or form of the actuator. Though linear controllers are more desirable than nonlinear ones, the review of literature shows that the results obtained using nonlinear controllers were far better than the former one. Therefore, more emphasis is made on the nonlinear control technologies taking into account the intelligent controllers. Various forms of SMA actuator along with different heating and cooling methods are presented in this review, followed by the nonlinear control methods and the control problems encountered by the researchers.
TL;DR: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of shape memory materials (SMMs) which have the ability to "memorise" or retain their previous form when subjected to certain stimulus such as thermomechanical or magnetic variations.
Abstract: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to a class of shape memory materials (SMMs), which have the ability to ‘memorise’ or retain their previous form when subjected to certain stimulus such as thermomechanical or magnetic variations. SMAs have drawn significant attention and interest in recent years in a broad range of commercial applications, due to their unique and superior properties; this commercial development has been supported by fundamental and applied research studies. This work describes the attributes of SMAs that make them ideally suited to actuators in various applications, and addresses their associated limitations to clarify the design challenges faced by SMA developers. This work provides a timely review of recent SMA research and commercial applications, with over 100 state-of-the-art patents; which are categorised against relevant commercial domains and rated according to design objectives of relevance to these domains (particularly automotive, aerospace, robotic and biomedical). Although this work presents an extensive review of SMAs, other categories of SMMs are also discussed; including a historical overview, summary of recent advances and new application opportunities.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of burr classifications along with the corresponding measurement technologies is described, and a number of case studies on burr formation, control and deburring along with their economic implications are presented.
Abstract: Increasing demands on function and performance call for burr-free workpiece edges after machining. Since deburring is a costly and non-value-added operation, the understanding and control of burr formation is a research topic with high relevance to industrial applications. Following a review of burr classifications along with the corresponding measurement technologies, burr formation mechanisms in machining are described. Deburring and burr control are two possible ways to deal with burrs. For both, an insight into current research results are presented. Finally, a number of case studies on burr formation, control and deburring along with their economic implications are presented.
03 Apr 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the areal field parameters and areal feature parameters were compared to solar cell efficiency and the mechanical bond strength for copper on glass plating applications, using laser-structured cams and conrods.
Abstract: Introduction to surface topography.- The areal field parameters.- The areal feature parameters.- Areal filtering methods.- Areal form removal.- Areal fractal methods.- Choosing the appropriate parameter.- Characterization of individual areal features.- Multi-scale signature of surface topography.- Correlation of areal surface texture parameters to solar cell efficiency.- Characterisation of cylinder liner honing textures for production control.- Characterization of the mechanical bond strength for copper on glass plating applications.- Inspection of laser structured cams and conrods.- Road surfaces.
TL;DR: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) as discussed by the authors are a unique class of metallic materials with the ability to recover their original shape at certain characteristic temperatures (shape memory effect), even under high applied loads and large inelastic deformations, or to undergo large strains without plastic deformation or failure (super-elasticity).
Abstract: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of metallic materials with the ability to recover their original shape at certain characteristic temperatures (shape memory effect), even under high applied loads and large inelastic deformations, or to undergo large strains without plastic deformation or failure (super-elasticity). In this review, we describe the main features of SMAs, their constitutive models and their properties. We also review the fatigue behavior of SMAs and some methods adopted to remove or reduce its undesirable effects. SMAs have been used in a wide variety of applications in different fields. In this review, we focus on the use of shape memory alloys in the context of morphing aircraft, with particular emphasis on variable twist and camber, and also on actuation bandwidth and reduction of power consumption. These applications prove particularly challenging because novel configurations are adopted to maximize integration and effectiveness of SMAs, which play the role of an actuator (using the shape memory effect), often combined with structural, load-carrying capabilities. Iterative and multi-disciplinary modeling is therefore necessary due to the fluid–structure interaction combined with the nonlinear behavior of SMAs.
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that the increased surface area of the material because of the increasing surface roughness is not the only cause for differences found in the electrochemical behaviour and corrosion resistance of the blasted c.p. Ti.
Abstract: It is well known that the osseointegration of the commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) dental implant is improved when the metal is shot blasted in order to increase its surface roughness. This roughness is colonised by bone, which improves implant fixation. However, shot blasting also changes the chemical composition of the implant surface because some shot particles remain adhered on the metal. The c.p. Ti surfaces shot blasted with different materials and sizes of shot particles were tested in order to determine their topographical features (surface roughness, real surface area and the percentage of surface covered by the adhered shot particles) and electrochemical behaviour (open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic polarisation). The results demonstrate that the increased surface area of the material because of the increasing surface roughness is not the only cause for differences found in the electrochemical behaviour and corrosion resistance of the blasted c.p. Ti. Among other possible causes, those differences may be attributed to the compressive residual surface stresses induced by shot blasting. All the materials tested have an adequate corrosion and electrochemical behaviour in terms of its possible use as dental implant material.