Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
Other affiliations: University of São Paulo, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, University of Cambridge
Bio: Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa is an academic researcher from Sao Paulo State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Beef cattle & Milking. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 67 publications receiving 737 citations. Previous affiliations of Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa include University of São Paulo & National Council for Scientific and Technological Development.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Encouraging results showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs in Brazil, Chile and Uruguay.
Abstract: Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs.
TL;DR: Allonursing was unrelated to kinship or reciprocal relationships among the cows, and was associated with a lack of maternal experience in young cows and apparent milk theft by hungry calves whose mothers were not providing them with sufficient milk.
Abstract: Allonursing was investigated in a dairy herd of 30 river buffalo cows and their calves. The primary behavioural variables were solicitations of allonursing by calves and acceptances of calves by cows. The sample of cows included a group of nine half-sisters, two additional pairs of half-sisters, and a pair of full-sisters. All of the calves were half-siblings owing to putative common paternity. Ancillary variables were age, milk-yield and docility of cows, as well as age, sex, weight and growth rate of calves. Three hundred and fifty-one instances of allonursing and 341 of filial nursing were recorded. There were large individual differences in the cows' tendencies to accept their own offspring and non-filial calves, and for the calves to successfully solicit milk from their mothers and other cows. Thirteen of the 30 cows accounted for 97% of the allonursing. Frequent allonursing was correlated with decreased growth rate in the donors' calves. Allonursing was unrelated to kinship or reciprocal relationships among the cows, and was associated with a lack of maternal experience in young cows and apparent milk theft by hungry calves whose mothers were not providing them with sufficient milk.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used qualitative behavior assessment (QBA) method as indicator of cattle temperament under field conditions, evaluating its associations with four other traditional methods and weight gain, including flight speed test (FS, in m/s), visual scores of movement in the crush (MOV), crush score (CS), temperament score (TS), and the qualitative behaviour assessment method by using a list of 12 behavioral based adjectives as descriptors of temperament.
Abstract: The aims of this study were to assess the validity and the feasibility of the qualitative behavior assessment (QBA) method as indicator of Nellore cattle temperament under field conditions, evaluating its associations with four other traditional methods and weight gain. The temperament and live weight of 2229 Nellore cattle was assessed at approximately 550 days of age. Five measurements of cattle temperament were recorded: flight speed test (FS, in m/s), visual scores of movement in the crush (MOV), crush score (CS), temperament score (TS), and the qualitative behavior assessment method (QBA), by using a list of 12 behavioral based adjectives as descriptors of temperament. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was calculated for each animal. For statistical analysis of QBA data, the Principal Component Analysis was used. A temperament index (TI) was defined for each animal using the scores for the first principal component. Pearson's correlation coefficients were estimated between TI with FS and ADG. A mixed model ANOVA was used to analyze the TI variation as a function of TS, CS, and MOV. The score plot for the first and second principal components was used to classify the cattle in four groups (from very bad to very good temperament). The first principal component explained 49.50% of the variation in the data set, with higher positive loadings for the adjectives ‘agitated’ and ‘active’, and higher negative loadings for ‘calm’ and ‘relaxed’. TI was significantly correlated with FS (r=0.49; P<0.01) and ADG (r=−0.10; P<0.01). The means of ADG, FS, and the temperament scores (CS, TS, MOV) differed significantly (P<0.01) among the four groups, from very bad to very good temperament. The QBA method could discriminate different behavioral profiles of Nellore cattle and were in agreement with other traditional methods used as indicators of cattle temperament. Additional studies are needed to assess the inter- and intra-observers reliability and to study its association with physiological parameters.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated the potential impacts of training in good practices of cattle handling on stockpeople's attitudes and behavior, and on cattle welfare, in Brazilian beef farms and found that non-trained farms had the poorest quality of handling and more undesirable animal behaviors during handling.
Abstract: The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential impacts of training in good practices of cattle handling on stockpeople's attitudes and behavior, and on cattle welfare, in Brazilian beef farms Additionally, we aimed to investigate whether the quality of cattle handling deteriorates as the working day progresses The study was conducted on 24 commercial beef cattle farms (located in Northeastern Para State, Brazil), which were classified into three groups with different levels of training: Regularly trained (TRAINED-R, n = 9), Occasionally trained (TRAINED-O, n = 9) and Never trained (NON-TRAINED, n = 6) A total of 150 stockpeople working on these farms were categorized according to the level of training received: i) Trained (TS, n = 43), those who attended formal handling skills training; ii) Non-trained, but had close contact with a trained stockperson (CTS, n = 62), and iii) Non-trained, and had no contact with a trained stockperson (NT, n = 45) On each farm, indicators of quality of handling (including animal and stockpeople behavior, and stockpeople attitudes) were measured on one workday, during the vaccination handling procedures of approximately 236 ± 65 (mean ± SD) heads of cattle per farm We observed that NON-TRAINED farms had the poorest quality of handling, as well as more undesirable animal behaviors during handling (P
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and total evaporative heat loss rate in Corriedale sheep under three air temperatures, aiming a better comprehension of thermoregulation mechanisms of these animals.
Abstract: It was investigated the rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and total evaporative heat loss rate in Corriedale sheep under three air temperatures, aiming a better comprehension of thermoregulation mechanisms of these animals. Initially, 21 adult animals were housed in climatic chamber under 45oC and variable air humidity (PV), recording the respiratory frequency (FR) and rectal temperature (TR). Basing on the FR and TR, it was selected 10 animals, five of the lowest values, assuming as being the best heat adapted (group 1) and five of the highest values, assuming as the worst heat adapted (group 2). The selected animals were maintained in climatic chamber, where it was measured again TR, FR and total evaporation rate (TET), under 20, 30 and 40oC of air temperature and variable PV. There was no statistical difference between the classified groups, for all the measured variables. In conclusion, the use of the physiological variables TR and FR as mainly parameters for these animals selection, is not enough for evaluate the level of adaptation under high temperatures.
TL;DR: For the next few weeks the course is going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach it’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery.
Abstract: So far in this course we have dealt entirely with the evolution of characters that are controlled by simple Mendelian inheritance at a single locus. There are notes on the course website about gametic disequilibrium and how allele frequencies change at two loci simultaneously, but we didn’t discuss them. In every example we’ve considered we’ve imagined that we could understand something about evolution by examining the evolution of a single gene. That’s the domain of classical population genetics. For the next few weeks we’re going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach we’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery. If you know a little about the history of evolutionary biology, you may know that after the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900 there was a heated debate between the “biometricians” (e.g., Galton and Pearson) and the “Mendelians” (e.g., de Vries, Correns, Bateson, and Morgan). Biometricians asserted that the really important variation in evolution didn’t follow Mendelian rules. Height, weight, skin color, and similar traits seemed to
TL;DR: It can be said that exposure of sheep to elevated ambient temperature negatively affects the biological functions which are reflected in the impairment of their production and reproduction traits.
Abstract: The exposure of sheep to elevated ambient temperatures induces an increase in the dissipation of excess body heat, in order to negate the excessive heat load. Dissipation of excess body heat is excluded by evaporation of water from the respiratory tract and skin surface via panting and sweating, respectively. Sweating in woolled sheep is much less effective due to the presence of the wool cover. With the elevation in environmental temperature to 36 °C, a high proportion of heat is dissipated via the ears and legs. When the physiological mechanisms of the animal fail to negate the excessive heat load, the rectal temperature increases. At the same time, such exposure of sheep to heat stress evokes a series of drastic changes in the biological functions, which include a decrease in feed intake efficiency and utilization, disturbances in water, protein, energy and mineral balances, enzymatic reactions, hormonal secretions and blood metabolites. Recent studies indicate that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates the circadian and seasonal rhythms of most biological functions, particularly the reproductive functions and behaviour in mammals. The regulation includes the phasic and tonic release of hormones, oestrus and in some cases, gonadal size. This is due to the fact that there is evidence suggesting that the SCN is sensitive to changes in ambient temperature—with some cells being more responsive to cold and others more responsive to heat, although photoperiodic changes may also have a strong influence. In conclusion, it can be said that exposure of sheep to elevated ambient temperature negatively affects the biological functions which are reflected in the impairment of their production and reproduction traits.
TL;DR: It is argued that communal Nursing may not be adaptive as mothers may be forced to share milk with nonoffspring in large communal nests (i.e. communal nursing may be a cost associated with communal nesting), and proposed directions for future study that may improve the understanding of communal nesting and nursing in the wild.
Abstract: Communal nesting, the sharing of parental responsibilities between multiple individuals in a nest, is common in many rodents. Upon first glance, this behaviour seems to be selectively disadvantageous. Communal care not only involves energetic costs, but may also be subject to cheating behaviour. Despite abundant literature, many questions remain regarding advantages gained by females that form nesting groups. I discuss the communal nesting of eusocial, singular and plural breeding rodents. I first clarify the distinction between communal nesting and thermoregulatory huddling. I then review two major groups of hypotheses ('ecological constraints' and 'benefits of philopatry') that are used to explain the occurrence of communal nesting in rodents. Most likely, these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Regardless of the main selective pressure(s) acting on communal nesting, the indirect components of inclusive fitness that result from nest sharing most likely influence the formation and maintenance of communal nests. Communal nesting and nursing (the sharing of milk with nonoffspring) are under different selective regimes and thus, must be evaluated separately. I review adaptive and nonadaptive hypotheses for rodent communal nursing. I argue that communal nursing may not be adaptive as mothers may be forced to share milk with nonoffspring in large communal nests (i.e. communal nursing may be a cost associated with communal nesting). In conclusion, I propose directions for future study that may improve our understanding of communal nesting and nursing in the wild. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
TL;DR: White coated Santa Ines animals were shown to be better adapted to climatic conditions in Central Brazil and wool sheep more affected by heat.
Abstract: Thirty Santa Ines adult, non-lactating, non-pregnant ewes, ten with a brown coat, ten black coated and ten white coated, as well as ten Bergamasca and ten of mixed breed were used to evaluate the effect of climate on physiological and blood parameters in sheep. Two sample collections were taken (6 am and 2 pm) on six days. Sweating rate (SR), heart (HR) and breathing rates (BR), complete hemogram, rectal (RT) and skin temperatures (ST) were measured. Variance analyses were carried out using SAS®. In general, there were significant differences between animals due to skin type, time and day of collection. White coated animals showed lower HR, BR and RT, with afternoon parameters higher than morning. Correlations between HR, BR, RT, SR and ST were medium and positive. Correlations between physiological and blood traits were in general negative and medium. Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration had high positive correlations between each other. The first two autovectors explained 49% of variation between traits. White coated Santa Ines animals were shown to be better adapted to climatic conditions in Central Brazil and wool sheep more affected by heat.