Other affiliations: Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Syiah Kuala University, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ...read more
Bio: Nurul Huda is an academic researcher from Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The author has contributed to research in topics: Chemistry & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 28, co-authored 179 publications receiving 3671 citations. Previous affiliations of Nurul Huda include Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin & Syiah Kuala University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Protection was similar against severe and non-severe cholera, but was significantly lower in children who were vaccinated at 2-5 years than in older persons (63% for BS-WC; 68% for WC); and PE was substantially higher against classical cholero than against El Tor cholERA.
Abstract: The protective efficacy (PE) of B subunit killed whole-cell (BS-WC) and killed whole-cell-only (WC) oral cholera vaccines was assessed in a randomised double-blind field trial among children aged 2-15 years and women over 15 years in rural Bangladesh. Among the 62 285 subjects who received three doses of BS-WC, WC, or Escherichia coli K12 strain placebo, cumulative PE at 3 years of follow-up was 50% for BS-WC and 52% for WC. PE was similar against severe and non-severe cholera, but was significantly lower in children who were vaccinated at 2-5 years (26% for BS-WC; 23% for WC) than in older persons (63% for BS-WC; 68% for WC). Among persons vaccinated at 2-5 years, protection at 4-6 months of follow-up was similar to that for older persons, but rapidly waned thereafter and was not evident during the third year of follow-up. In contrast, persons vaccinated at older ages were protected even in the third year of follow-up (PE 40% for BS-WC; 62% for WC). PE was substantially higher against classical cholera (58% for BS-WC; 60% for WC) than against El Tor cholera (39% and 40%).
TL;DR: Sixty-seven percent fewer episodes of LT-ETEC diarrhea were noted in the BS-WC group than in the WC group during short-term follow-up, but no reduction was evident during the ensuing nine months.
Abstract: The B subunit (BS) of cholera toxin and that of the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are antigenically similar. We therefore assessed whether a combined cholera toxin BS/whole-cell (BS-WC) oral vaccine against cholera conferred cross-protection against LT-producing ETEC (LT-ETEC) diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind field trial among rural Bangladeshi children and women. The 24 770 persons who ingested two or more doses of BS-WC vaccine were compared with 24 842 controls who took two or more doses of killed whole-cell (WC) oral cholera vaccine. Sixty-seven percent fewer episodes of LT-ETEC diarrhea were noted in the BS-WC group than in the WC group during short-term (three-month) follow-up (P < .01), but no reduction was evident during the ensuing nine months. Short-term protection was particularly notable against LT-ETEC diarrhea causing life-threatening dehydration (protective efficacy, 86^0; P < .05).
TL;DR: Information is summarized regarding the molecular, nutritional, and functional properties of alternative protein sources to meat and current knowledge is presented to encourage further research to optimize the beneficial effects of alternativeprotein sources.
Abstract: The direct consumption of vegetable proteins in food products has been increasing over the years because of animal diseases, global shortage of animal protein, strong demand for wholesome and religious (halal) food, and economic reasons. The increasing importance of legume and oilseed proteins in the manufacturing of various functional food products is due to their high-protein contents. However, the greatest obstacle to utilizing these legumes and oilseeds is the presence of antinutrients; but these antinutrients can be successfully removed or inactivated by employing certain processing methods. In contrast, the potential negative impact of the antinutrients is partially balanced by the fact that they may have a health-promoting role. Legumes and oilseeds provide well-balanced amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. Soybean proteins, wheat gluten, cottonseed proteins, and other plant proteins have been used for texturization. Texturized vegetable proteins can extend meat products while providing an economical, functional, and high-protein food ingredient or can be consumed directly as a meat analog. Meat analogs are successful because of their healthy image (cholesterol free), meat-like texture, and low cost. Mycoprotein is fungal in origin and is used as a high-protein, low-fat, health-promoting food ingredient. Mycoprotein has a good taste and texture. Texturized vegetable proteins and a number of mycoprotein products are accepted as halal foods. This article summarizes information regarding the molecular, nutritional, and functional properties of alternative protein sources to meat and presents current knowledge to encourage further research to optimize the beneficial effects of alternative protein sources.
TL;DR: In this paper, the oral B subunit killed whole-cell (BS-WC) and killed wholecell (WC) cholera vaccines was assessed in 63 498 Bangladeshi children aged 2-15 years and women aged over 15 years.
Abstract: The protective efficacy of oral B subunit killed whole-cell (BS-WC) and killed whole-cell (WC) cholera vaccines was assessed in 63 498 Bangladeshi children aged 2-15 years and women aged over 15 years. Each received three doses of BS-WC, WC, or placebo in a randomised, double-blinded fashion. Surveillance for cases seeking medical care up to six months after the third dose revealed 26 cases of confirmed cholera in the placebo group, 4 cases in the BS-WC group (protective efficacy 85%; p less than 0.0001), and 11 cases in the WC group (protective efficacy 58%; p less than 0.01). For each vaccine protective efficacy was consistent in different age-groups (2-10 years versus greater than 10 years) and for different severities of cholera.
TL;DR: It is concluded that BS-WC and WC vaccines confer significant protection against cholera, particularly in persons vaccinated when older than five years, and in younger persons protection was transient.
Abstract: We assessed the protective efficacy (PE) of three doses of B subunit-killed whole cell (BS-WC) and killed whole cell-only (WC) oral cholera vaccines in a randomized, double-blind trial among 62,285 children and women residing in rural Bangladesh. After one complete year of surveillance, 110 cases of cholera were detected in the placebo group, 52 in the WC group (PE, 53%; P less than .0001), and 41 in the BS-WC group (PE, 62%; P less than .0001). Protection was greater for BS-WC recipients than for WC recipients only during the initial eight months of observation. Both vaccines conferred equivalent protection against cholera associated with life-threatening dehydration and against less severe cholera. High-grade, sustained protection was observed in persons vaccinated when older than five years; in younger persons protection was transient. We conclude that BS-WC and WC vaccines confer significant protection against cholera, particularly in persons vaccinated when older than five years.
TL;DR: The temporal and geographical distribution of human rotavirus G and P types was reviewed by analysing a total of 45571 strains collected globally from 124 studies reported from 52 countries on five continents published between 1989 and 2004 and revealed several characteristic features.
Abstract: A safe and effective rotavirus vaccine is urgently needed, particularly in developing countries. Critical to vaccine development and implementation is a knowledge base concerning the epidemiology of rotavirus G and P serotypes/genotypes throughout the world. The temporal and geographical distribution of human rotavirus G and P types was reviewed by analysing a total of 45571 strains collected globally from 124 studies reported from 52 countries on five continents published between 1989 and 2004. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3 and G4) in conjunction with P or P represented over 88% of the strains analysed worldwide. In addition, serotype G9 viruses associated with P or P were shown to have emerged as the fourth globally important G type with the relative frequency of 4.1%. When the global G and/or P type distributions were divided into five continents/subcontinents, several characteristic features emerged. For example, the PG1 represented over 70% of rotavirus infections in North America, Europe and Australia, but only about 30% of the infections in South America and Asia, and 23% in Africa. In addition, in Africa (i) the relative frequency of G8 was as high as that of the globally common G3 or G4, (ii) P represented almost one-third of all P types identified and (iii) 27% of the infections were associated with rotavirus strains bearing unusual combinations such as PG8 or PG8. Furthermore, in South America, uncommon G5 virus appeared to increase its epidemiological importance among children with diarrhea. Such findings have (i) confirmed the importance of continued active rotavirus strain surveillance in a variety of geographical settings and (ii) provided important considerations for the development and implementation of an effective rotavirus vaccine (e.g. a geographical P-G type adjustment in the formulation of next generation multivalent vaccines).
TL;DR: With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future, and the development of costeffective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product is needed.
Abstract: With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of costeffective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.
TL;DR: The pathogenesis of ETEC-induced diarrhea is similar to that of cholera and includes the production of enterotoxins and colonization factors, and clinical symptoms can range from mild diarrhea to a severe choline-like syndrome.
Abstract: ETEC is an underrecognized but extremely important cause of diarrhea in the developing world where there is inadequate clean water and poor sanitation. It is the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea in children and adults living in these areas and also the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. ETEC diarrhea is most frequently seen in children, suggesting that a protective immune response occurs with age. The pathogenesis of ETEC-induced diarrhea is similar to that of cholera and includes the production of enterotoxins and colonization factors. The clinical symptoms of ETEC infection can range from mild diarrhea to a severe cholera-like syndrome. The effective treatment of ETEC diarrhea by rehydration is similar to treatment for cholera, but antibiotics are not used routinely for treatment except in traveler's diarrhea. The frequency and characterization of ETEC on a worldwide scale are inadequate because of the difficulty in recognizing the organisms; no simple diagnostic tests are presently available. Protection strategies, as for other enteric infections, include improvements in hygiene and development of effective vaccines. Increases in antimicrobial resistance will dictate the drugs used for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Efforts need to be made to improve our understanding of the worldwide importance of ETEC.
TL;DR: The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins, which may improve understanding of the disease process itself and illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function.
Abstract: Cholera and the related Escherichia coli-associated diarrheal disease are important problems confronting Third World nations and any area where water supplies can become contaminated. The disease is extremely debilitating and may be fatal in the absence of treatment. Symptoms are caused by the action of cholera toxin, secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or by a closely related heat-labile enterotoxin, produced by Escherichia coli, that causes a milder, more common traveler's diarrhea. Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. The consequent stimulated production of cyclic AMP, or other factors such as increased synthesis of prostaglandins by intoxicated cells, initiates a metabolic cascade that results in the excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes characteristic of the disease. The toxins have a very high degree of structural and functional homology and may be evolutionarily related. Several effective new vaccine formulations have been developed and tested, and a growing family of endogenous cofactors is being discovered in eukaryotic cells. The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins. This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function.