scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

P. J. Phillips

Bio: P. J. Phillips is an academic researcher from National Institute of Standards and Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Facial recognition system & Face Recognition Grand Challenge. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 4 publications receiving 6436 citations.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an up-to-date critical survey of still-and video-based face recognition research, and provide some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces.
Abstract: As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention, especially during the past several years. At least two reasons account for this trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after 30 years of research. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. For example, recognition of face images acquired in an outdoor environment with changes in illumination and/or pose remains a largely unsolved problem. In other words, current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system.This paper provides an up-to-date critical survey of still- and video-based face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as psychophysical studies, system evaluation, and issues of illumination and pose variation are covered.

6,384 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study of how humans perceive faces can be used to help design practical systems for face recognition, including recognition from unconstrained video sequences, incorporating familiarity into algorithms, modeling effects of aging, and developing biologically plausible models for human face recognition ability are discussed.
Abstract: This article talks about how the study of how humans perceive faces can be used to help design practical systems for face recognition. Besides applications related to identification and verification-such as access control, law enforcement, ID and licensing, and surveillance-face recognition has also proven useful in applications such as human-computer interaction, virtual reality, database retrieval, multimedia, and computer entertainment. Continuing research into face recognition will provide scientists and engineers with many vital projects, in areas such as homeland security, human-computer interaction, and numerous consumer applications. The areas we are considering pursuing are recognition from unconstrained video sequences, incorporating familiarity into algorithms, modeling effects of aging, and developing biologically plausible models for human face recognition ability.

123 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A face recognition algorithm based on simultaneous sparse approximations under varying illumination and pose that has the ability to recognize human faces with high accuracy even when only a single or a very few images per person are provided for training.
Abstract: We present a face recognition algorithm based on simultaneous sparse approximations under varying illumination and pose. A dictionary is learned for each class based on given training examples which minimizes the representation error with a sparseness constraint. A novel test image is projected onto the span of the atoms in each learned dictionary. The resulting residual vectors are then used for classification. To handle variations in lighting conditions and pose, an image relighting technique based on pose-robust albedo estimation is used to generate multiple frontal images of the same person with variable lighting. As a result, the proposed algorithm has the ability to recognize human faces with high accuracy even when only a single or a very few images per person are provided for training. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated using publicly available databases available databases and it is shown that this method is efficient and can perform significantly better than many competitive face recognition algorithms.

113 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An approach that simultaneously clusters images and learns dictionaries from the clusters and provides both in-plane rotation and scale invariant clustering, which is useful in numerous applications, including content-based image retrieval (CBIR).
Abstract: In this paper, we present an approach that simultaneously clusters images and learns dictionaries from the clusters. The method learns dictionaries and clusters images in the radon transform domain. The main feature of the proposed approach is that it provides both in-plane rotation and scale invariant clustering, which is useful in numerous applications, including content-based image retrieval (CBIR). We demonstrate the effectiveness of our rotation and scale invariant clustering method on a series of CBIR experiments. Experiments are performed on the Smithsonian isolated leaf, Kimia shape, and Brodatz texture datasets. Our method provides both good retrieval performance and greater robustness compared to standard Gabor-based and three state-of-the-art shape-based methods that have similar objectives.

35 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work considers the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise, and proposes a general classification algorithm for (image-based) object recognition based on a sparse representation computed by C1-minimization.
Abstract: We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models and argue that new theory from sparse signal representation offers the key to addressing this problem. Based on a sparse representation computed by C1-minimization, we propose a general classification algorithm for (image-based) object recognition. This new framework provides new insights into two crucial issues in face recognition: feature extraction and robustness to occlusion. For feature extraction, we show that if sparsity in the recognition problem is properly harnessed, the choice of features is no longer critical. What is critical, however, is whether the number of features is sufficiently large and whether the sparse representation is correctly computed. Unconventional features such as downsampled images and random projections perform just as well as conventional features such as eigenfaces and Laplacianfaces, as long as the dimension of the feature space surpasses certain threshold, predicted by the theory of sparse representation. This framework can handle errors due to occlusion and corruption uniformly by exploiting the fact that these errors are often sparse with respect to the standard (pixel) basis. The theory of sparse representation helps predict how much occlusion the recognition algorithm can handle and how to choose the training images to maximize robustness to occlusion. We conduct extensive experiments on publicly available databases to verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm and corroborate the above claims.

9,658 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a novel and efficient facial image representation based on local binary pattern (LBP) texture features that is assessed in the face recognition problem under different challenges.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel and efficient facial image representation based on local binary pattern (LBP) texture features. The face image is divided into several regions from which the LBP feature distributions are extracted and concatenated into an enhanced feature vector to be used as a face descriptor. The performance of the proposed method is assessed in the face recognition problem under different challenges. Other applications and several extensions are also discussed

5,563 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation are surveyed, and the spawning of related subfields are discussed, to discuss the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world.
Abstract: We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in content-based image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.

3,433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents a simple and efficient preprocessing chain that eliminates most of the effects of changing illumination while still preserving the essential appearance details that are needed for recognition, and improves robustness by adding Kernel principal component analysis (PCA) feature extraction and incorporating rich local appearance cues from two complementary sources.
Abstract: Making recognition more reliable under uncontrolled lighting conditions is one of the most important challenges for practical face recognition systems. We tackle this by combining the strengths of robust illumination normalization, local texture-based face representations, distance transform based matching, kernel-based feature extraction and multiple feature fusion. Specifically, we make three main contributions: 1) we present a simple and efficient preprocessing chain that eliminates most of the effects of changing illumination while still preserving the essential appearance details that are needed for recognition; 2) we introduce local ternary patterns (LTP), a generalization of the local binary pattern (LBP) local texture descriptor that is more discriminant and less sensitive to noise in uniform regions, and we show that replacing comparisons based on local spatial histograms with a distance transform based similarity metric further improves the performance of LBP/LTP based face recognition; and 3) we further improve robustness by adding Kernel principal component analysis (PCA) feature extraction and incorporating rich local appearance cues from two complementary sources-Gabor wavelets and LBP-showing that the combination is considerably more accurate than either feature set alone. The resulting method provides state-of-the-art performance on three data sets that are widely used for testing recognition under difficult illumination conditions: Extended Yale-B, CAS-PEAL-R1, and Face Recognition Grand Challenge version 2 experiment 4 (FRGC-204). For example, on the challenging FRGC-204 data set it halves the error rate relative to previously published methods, achieving a face verification rate of 88.1% at 0.1% false accept rate. Further experiments show that our preprocessing method outperforms several existing preprocessors for a range of feature sets, data sets and lighting conditions.

2,981 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
16 Jun 2012
TL;DR: It is shown that tree-structured models are surprisingly effective at capturing global elastic deformation, while being easy to optimize unlike dense graph structures, in real-world, cluttered images.
Abstract: We present a unified model for face detection, pose estimation, and landmark estimation in real-world, cluttered images. Our model is based on a mixtures of trees with a shared pool of parts; we model every facial landmark as a part and use global mixtures to capture topological changes due to viewpoint. We show that tree-structured models are surprisingly effective at capturing global elastic deformation, while being easy to optimize unlike dense graph structures. We present extensive results on standard face benchmarks, as well as a new “in the wild” annotated dataset, that suggests our system advances the state-of-the-art, sometimes considerably, for all three tasks. Though our model is modestly trained with hundreds of faces, it compares favorably to commercial systems trained with billions of examples (such as Google Picasa and face.com).

2,340 citations