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TL;DR: A technique for image encoding in which local operators of many scales but identical shape serve as the basis functions, which tends to enhance salient image features and is well suited for many image analysis tasks as well as for image compression.

Abstract: We describe a technique for image encoding in which local operators of many scales but identical shape serve as the basis functions. The representation differs from established techniques in that the code elements are localized in spatial frequency as well as in space. Pixel-to-pixel correlations are first removed by subtracting a lowpass filtered copy of the image from the image itself. The result is a net data compression since the difference, or error, image has low variance and entropy, and the low-pass filtered image may represented at reduced sample density. Further data compression is achieved by quantizing the difference image. These steps are then repeated to compress the low-pass image. Iteration of the process at appropriately expanded scales generates a pyramid data structure. The encoding process is equivalent to sampling the image with Laplacian operators of many scales. Thus, the code tends to enhance salient image features. A further advantage of the present code is that it is well suited for many image analysis tasks as well as for image compression. Fast algorithms are described for coding and decoding.

6,975 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an up-to-date critical survey of still-and video-based face recognition research, and provide some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces.

Abstract: As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention, especially during the past several years. At least two reasons account for this trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after 30 years of research. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. For example, recognition of face images acquired in an outdoor environment with changes in illumination and/or pose remains a largely unsolved problem. In other words, current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system.This paper provides an up-to-date critical survey of still- and video-based face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as psychophysical studies, system evaluation, and issues of illumination and pose variation are covered.

6,384 citations

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TL;DR: The embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is a simple, yet remarkably effective, image compression algorithm, having the property that the bits in the bit stream are generated in order of importance, yielding a fully embedded code.

Abstract: The embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is a simple, yet remarkably effective, image compression algorithm, having the property that the bits in the bit stream are generated in order of importance, yielding a fully embedded code The embedded code represents a sequence of binary decisions that distinguish an image from the "null" image Using an embedded coding algorithm, an encoder can terminate the encoding at any point thereby allowing a target rate or target distortion metric to be met exactly Also, given a bit stream, the decoder can cease decoding at any point in the bit stream and still produce exactly the same image that would have been encoded at the bit rate corresponding to the truncated bit stream In addition to producing a fully embedded bit stream, the EZW consistently produces compression results that are competitive with virtually all known compression algorithms on standard test images Yet this performance is achieved with a technique that requires absolutely no training, no pre-stored tables or codebooks, and requires no prior knowledge of the image source The EZW algorithm is based on four key concepts: (1) a discrete wavelet transform or hierarchical subband decomposition, (2) prediction of the absence of significant information across scales by exploiting the self-similarity inherent in images, (3) entropy-coded successive-approximation quantization, and (4) universal lossless data compression which is achieved via adaptive arithmetic coding >

5,559 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the first stage consists of linear filters that are oriented in space-time and tuned in spatial frequency, and the outputs of quadrature pairs of such filters are squared and summed to give a measure of motion energy.

Abstract: A motion sequence may be represented as a single pattern in x–y–t space; a velocity of motion corresponds to a three-dimensional orientation in this space. Motion sinformation can be extracted by a system that responds to the oriented spatiotemporal energy. We discuss a class of models for human motion mechanisms in which the first stage consists of linear filters that are oriented in space-time and tuned in spatial frequency. The outputs of quadrature pairs of such filters are squared and summed to give a measure of motion energy. These responses are then fed into an opponent stage. Energy models can be built from elements that are consistent with known physiology and psychophysics, and they permit a qualitative understanding of a variety of motion phenomena.

3,504 citations

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TL;DR: The algorithm is used in a robust hypothesize-and-test framework to estimate structure and motion in real-time with low delay and is the first algorithm well-suited for numerical implementation that also corresponds to the inherent complexity of the problem.

Abstract: An efficient algorithmic solution to the classical five-point relative pose problem is presented. The problem is to find the possible solutions for relative camera pose between two calibrated views given five corresponding points. The algorithm consists of computing the coefficients of a tenth degree polynomial in closed form and, subsequently, finding its roots. It is the first algorithm well-suited for numerical implementation that also corresponds to the inherent complexity of the problem. We investigate the numerical precision of the algorithm. We also study its performance under noise in minimal as well as overdetermined cases. The performance is compared to that of the well-known 8 and 7-point methods and a 6-point scheme. The algorithm is used in a robust hypothesize-and-test framework to estimate structure and motion in real-time with low delay. The real-time system uses solely visual input and has been demonstrated at major conferences.

2,077 citations

##### Authors

Showing all 1883 results

Name | H-index | Papers | Citations |
---|---|---|---|

P. Chang | 170 | 2154 | 151783 |

Edward H. Adelson | 74 | 228 | 40686 |

Michal Irani | 73 | 150 | 25714 |

Jeffrey R. Johnson | 66 | 325 | 17669 |

Lucas C. Parra | 65 | 278 | 14750 |

Harpreet Sawhney | 63 | 197 | 12665 |

Shmuel Peleg | 60 | 221 | 16853 |

Elizabeth A. Krupinski | 58 | 538 | 12697 |

Rakesh Kumar | 55 | 164 | 10022 |

Zixiang Xiong | 53 | 392 | 11540 |

Dipankar Raychaudhuri | 53 | 277 | 10880 |

Dinei Florencio | 51 | 208 | 8641 |

Ya-Qin Zhang | 48 | 152 | 10117 |

Padmanabhan Anandan | 47 | 97 | 12601 |

Ajay Divakaran | 45 | 242 | 6913 |