Paul V. Dressendorfer
Bio: Paul V. Dressendorfer is an academic researcher from Sandia National Laboratories. The author has contributed to research in topics: Silicon & Electron paramagnetic resonance. The author has an hindex of 28, co-authored 43 publications receiving 4484 citations.
•01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: In this article, Hughes et al. present a survey of the effects of radiation on MOS devices and circuits, including hardening technology, process-induced radiation effects, and interface traps.
Abstract: Historical Perspective (H. Hughes). Electron--Hole Generation, Transport, and Trapping in SiO2 (F. McLean, et al.). Radiation--Induced Interface Traps (P. Winokur). Radiation Effects on MOS Devices and Circuits (P. Dressendorfer). Radiation--Hardening Technology (P. Dressendorfer). Process--Induced Radiation Effects (T. Ma). Source Considerations and Testing Techniques (K. Kerris). Transient--Ionization and Single--Event Phenomena (S. Kerns). Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of E′ center (a "trivalent silicon" center in SiO2) density as well as capacitance versus voltage (C•V) measurements on γ-irradiated metal/oxide/silicon (MOS) structures were reported.
Abstract: We report electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of E′‐center (a ‘‘trivalent silicon’’ center in SiO2) density as well as capacitance versus voltage (C‐V) measurements on γ‐irradiated metal/oxide/silicon (MOS) structures. We also report a considerable refinement of earlier ESR measurements of the dependence of radiation‐induced Pb ‐center (a ‘‘trivalent silicon’’ center at the Si/SiO2 interface) occupation as a function of the Fermi level at the Si/SiO2 interface. These measurements indicate that the Pb centers are neutral when the Fermi level is at mid‐gap. Since the Pb centers are largely responsible for the radiation‐induced interface states, one may take ΔVmg Cox/e (where ΔVmg is the ‘‘mid‐gap’’ C‐V shift, Cox is the oxide capacitance, and e is the electronic charge) as the density of holes trapped in the oxide. We find that radiation‐induced E′ density equals ΔVmg Cox/e in oxides grown in both stream and dry oxygen. Etch‐back experiments demonstrate that the E′ centers are concentrated very near the Si/SiO2 interface (as are the trapped holes). Furthermore, we have subjected irradiated oxide structures to a sequence of isochronal anneals and find that the E′ density and ΔVmg annealing characteristics are virtually identical. We conclude that the E′ centers are largely responsible for the deep hole traps in thermal SiO2 on silicon. This observation coupled with observations regarding the Pb center indicates that two intrinsic centers, both involving silicon atoms lacking one bond to an oxygen atom, are largely responsible for the two electrically significant aspects of radiation damage in MOS devices: charge buildup in the oxide and interface‐state creation at the Si/SiO2 interface.
TL;DR: In this paper, a new technique is presented for separating the thresholdvoltage shift of an MOS transistor into shifts due to interface states and trapped-oxide charge, and the radiation responses of MOS capacitors and transistors fabricated on the same wafer are compared.
Abstract: A new technique is presented for separating the threshold-voltage shift of an MOS transistor into shifts due to interface states and trapped-oxide charge. Using this technique, the radiation responses of MOS capacitors and transistors fabricated on the same wafer are compared. A good correlation is observed between p-substrate capacitors and n-channel transistors irradiated at 10 V, as well as between n-substrate capacitors and p-channel transistors irradiated at 0 V. These correlations were verified for samples having large variations in the amount of radiation-induced trapped holes and interface states. An excellent correlation is also observed between n-channel capacitors and n-substrate transistors irradiated under positive bias. The use of capacitors separately fabricated on control wafers for potential use in process development or monitoring is clearly demonstrated.
TL;DR: In this article, a physically based methodology is developed for modeling the behavior of electrical circuits containing nonideal ferroelectric capacitors, illustrated by modeling the discrete capacitors as a stacked dielectric structure.
Abstract: A physically based methodology is developed for modeling the behavior of electrical circuits containing nonideal ferroelectric capacitors. The methodology is illustrated by modeling the discrete ferroelectric capacitor as a stacked dielectric structure, with switching ferroelectric and nonswitching dielectric layers. Electrical properties of a modified Sawyer–Tower circuit are predicted by the model. Distortions of hysteresis loops due to resistive losses as a function of input signal frequency are accurately predicted by the model. The effect of signal amplitude variations predicted by the model also agree with experimental data. The model is used as a diagnostic tool to demonstrate that cycling degradation, at least for the sample investigated, cannot be modeled by the formation of nonswitching dielectric layer(s) or the formation of conductive regions near the electrodes, but is consistent with a spatially uniform reduction in the number of switching dipoles.
Abstract: The physical mechanisms that produce rebound have been identified. The positive increase in threshold voltage during a bias anneal is due to annealing of oxide trapped charge. Rebound can be predicted by measuring the contribution to the threshold voltage from radiation-induced interface states immediately after irradiation.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce the current state of development in the application of ferroelectric thin films for electronic devices and discuss the physics relevant for the performance and failure of these devices.
Abstract: This review covers important advances in recent years in the physics of thin-film ferroelectric oxides, the strongest emphasis being on those aspects particular to ferroelectrics in thin-film form. The authors introduce the current state of development in the application of ferroelectric thin films for electronic devices and discuss the physics relevant for the performance and failure of these devices. Following this the review covers the enormous progress that has been made in the first-principles computational approach to understanding ferroelectrics. The authors then discuss in detail the important role that strain plays in determining the properties of epitaxial thin ferroelectric films. Finally, this review ends with a look at the emerging possibilities for nanoscale ferroelectrics, with particular emphasis on ferroelectrics in nonconventional nanoscale geometries.
TL;DR: Ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films and ceramics are reviewed with the aim of providing an insight into different processes which may affect the behaviour of Ferroelectric devices.
Abstract: Ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films and ceramics are reviewed with the aim of providing an insight into different processes which may affect the behaviour of ferroelectric devices, such as ferroelectric memories and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Taking into consideration recent advances in this field, topics such as polarization switching, polarization fatigue, effects of defects, depletion layers, and depolarization fields on hysteresis loop behaviour, and contributions of domain-wall displacement to dielectric and piezoelectric properties are discussed. An introduction into dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of ferroelectric materials, symmetry considerations, coupling of electro-mechanical and thermal properties, and definitions of relevant ferroelectric phenomena are provided.
TL;DR: In this article, the status of SiC in terms of bulk crystal growth, unit device fabrication processes, device performance, circuits and sensors is discussed, focusing on demonstrated high-temperature applications, such as power transistors and rectifiers, turbine engine combustion monitoring, temperature sensors, analog and digital circuitry, flame detectors, and accelerometers.
Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC), a material long known with potential for high-temperature, high-power, high-frequency, and radiation hardened applications, has emerged as the most mature of the wide-bandgap (2.0 eV ≲ Eg ≲ 7.0 eV) semiconductors since the release of commercial 6HSiC bulk substrates in 1991 and 4HSiC substrates in 1994. Following a brief introduction to SiC material properties, the status of SiC in terms of bulk crystal growth, unit device fabrication processes, device performance, circuits and sensors is discussed. Emphasis is placed upon demonstrated high-temperature applications, such as power transistors and rectifiers, turbine engine combustion monitoring, temperature sensors, analog and digital circuitry, flame detectors, and accelerometers. While individual device performances have been impressive (e.g. 4HSiC MESFETs with fmax of 42 GHz and over 2.8 W mm−1 power density; 4HSiC static induction transistors with 225 W power output at 600 MHz, 47% power added efficiency (PAE), and 200 V forward blocking voltage), material defects in SiC, in particular micropipe defects, remain the primary impediment to wide-spread application in commercial markets. Micropipe defect densities have been reduced from near the 1000 cm−2 order of magnitude in 1992 to 3.5 cm−2 at the research level in 1995.
TL;DR: In this paper, the spectroscopic properties, structure and interconversions of optically active oxygen-deficiency-related point defects in vitreous silica are reviewed.
Abstract: The spectroscopic properties, structure and interconversions of optically active oxygen-deficiency-related point defects in vitreous silica are reviewed. These defects, the E′-centers (oxygen vacancies with a trapped hole or 3-fold-coordinated silicons), different variants of diamagnetic `ODCs' (oxygen-deficiency centers), and their Ge-related analogs play a key role in the fiber-optic Bragg grating writing processes. The controversy surrounding the structural models for the Si- and Ge-related ODCs is discussed and the similarity between the bulk and surface point defects in silica is emphasized. The possible interconversion mechanisms between 2-fold-coordinated Si, neutral oxygen vacancies and E′-centers are discussed. The effects of glassy disorder have a profound effect on defect properties and interconversion processes in silica.
TL;DR: In this article, a design technique for storage elements which are insensitive to radiation-induced single-event upsets is proposed for implementation in high density ASICs and static RAMs using submicron CMOS technology.
Abstract: A novel design technique is proposed for storage elements which are insensitive to radiation-induced single-event upsets. This technique is suitable for implementation in high density ASICs and static RAMs using submicron CMOS technology.