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JournalISSN: 0021-8979

Journal of Applied Physics

About: Journal of Applied Physics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Magnetization & Thin film. It has an ISSN identifier of 0021-8979. Over the lifetime, 142157 publication(s) have been published receiving 4145180 citation(s).

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Topics: Magnetization, Thin film, Silicon ...read more
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.328693
Abstract: A new Lagrangian formulation is introduced. It can be used to make molecular dynamics (MD) calculations on systems under the most general, externally applied, conditions of stress. In this formulation the MD cell shape and size can change according to dynamical equations given by this Lagrangian. This new MD technique is well suited to the study of structural transformations in solids under external stress and at finite temperature. As an example of the use of this technique we show how a single crystal of Ni behaves under uniform uniaxial compressive and tensile loads. This work confirms some of the results of static (i.e., zero temperature) calculations reported in the literature. We also show that some results regarding the stress‐strain relation obtained by static calculations are invalid at finite temperature. We find that, under compressive loading, our model of Ni shows a bifurcation in its stress‐strain relation; this bifurcation provides a link in configuration space between cubic and hexagonal close packing. It is suggested that such a transformation could perhaps be observed experimentally under extreme conditions of shock.

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10,963 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.1736034
Abstract: In order to find an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of p‐n junction solar energy converters, a limiting efficiency, called the detailed balance limit of efficiency, has been calculated for an ideal case in which the only recombination mechanism of hole‐electron pairs is radiative as required by the principle of detailed balance. The efficiency is also calculated for the case in which radiative recombination is only a fixed fraction fc of the total recombination, the rest being nonradiative. Efficiencies at the matched loads have been calculated with band gap and fc as parameters, the sun and cell being assumed to be blackbodies with temperatures of 6000°K and 300°K, respectively. The maximum efficiency is found to be 30% for an energy gap of 1.1 ev and fc = 1. Actual junctions do not obey the predicted current‐voltage relationship, and reasons for the difference and its relevance to efficiency are discussed.

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9,491 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.1992666
Abstract: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature. Even though research focusing on ZnO goes back many decades, the renewed interest is fueled by availability of high-quality substrates and reports of p-type conduction and ferromagnetic behavior when doped with transitions metals, both of which remain controversial. It is this renewed interest in ZnO which forms the basis of this review. As mentioned already, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field, with studies of its lattice parameter dating back to 1935 by Bunn [Proc. Phys. Soc. London 47, 836 (1935)], studies of its vibrational properties with Raman scattering in 1966 by Damen et al. [Phys. Rev. 142, 570 (1966)], detailed optical studies in 1954 by Mollwo [Z. Angew. Phys. 6, 257 (1954)], and its growth by chemical-vapor transport in 1970 by Galli and Coker [Appl. Phys. ...

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  • FIG. 119. The schematics of a typical TTFT structure. Reprinted with permission from R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, and J. F. Wager, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 2003 . Copyright 2003, American Institute of Physics.
    FIG. 119. The schematics of a typical TTFT structure. Reprinted with permission from R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, and J. F. Wager, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 2003 . Copyright 2003, American Institute of Physics.
  • FIG. 120. Electrical characteristics of TTFT: a drain-current–drain-voltage ID-VDS characteristics; b transfer characteristics and gate leakage current for a TTFT with a width-to-length ratio of 10:1 for VDS=10 V. Reprinted with permission from R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, and J. F. Wager, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 2003 . Copyright 2003, American Institute of Physics.
    FIG. 120. Electrical characteristics of TTFT: a drain-current–drain-voltage ID-VDS characteristics; b transfer characteristics and gate leakage current for a TTFT with a width-to-length ratio of 10:1 for VDS=10 V. Reprinted with permission from R. L. Hoffman, B. J. Norris, and J. F. Wager, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 733 2003 . Copyright 2003, American Institute of Physics.
  • FIG. 1. Stick and ball representation of ZnO crystal structures: a cubic rocksalt B1 , b cubic zinc blende B3 , and c hexagonal wurtzite B4 . The shaded gray and black spheres denote Zn and O atoms, respectively.
    FIG. 1. Stick and ball representation of ZnO crystal structures: a cubic rocksalt B1 , b cubic zinc blende B3 , and c hexagonal wurtzite B4 . The shaded gray and black spheres denote Zn and O atoms, respectively.
  • FIG. 3. Schematic representation of a wurtzitic ZnO structure having lattice constants a in the basal plane and c in the basal direction; u parameter is expressed as the bond length or the nearest-neighbor distance b divided by c 0.375 in ideal crystal , and and 109.47° in ideal crystal are the bond angles.
    FIG. 3. Schematic representation of a wurtzitic ZnO structure having lattice constants a in the basal plane and c in the basal direction; u parameter is expressed as the bond length or the nearest-neighbor distance b divided by c 0.375 in ideal crystal , and and 109.47° in ideal crystal are the bond angles.
  • FIG. 2. Total energy vs volume both per ZnO f.u. for the three phases: zinc blende squares , wurtzite diamonds , and rocksalt circles . The zero of energy is the sum of the total energy of an isolated Zn and an isolated O atom. Reprinted with permission from J. E. Jaffe and A. C. Hess, Phys. Rev. B 48, 7903 1993 . Copyright 1993 by the American Physical Society.
    FIG. 2. Total energy vs volume both per ZnO f.u. for the three phases: zinc blende squares , wurtzite diamonds , and rocksalt circles . The zero of energy is the sum of the total energy of an isolated Zn and an isolated O atom. Reprinted with permission from J. E. Jaffe and A. C. Hess, Phys. Rev. B 48, 7903 1993 . Copyright 1993 by the American Physical Society.
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9,486 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.1712886
Maurice A. Biot1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The settlement of soils under load is caused by a phenomenon called consolidation, whose mechanism is known to be in many cases identical with the process of squeezing water out of an elasticporous medium. The mathematical physical consequences of this viewpoint are established in the present paper. The number of physical constants necessary to determine the properties of the soil is derived along with the general equations for the prediction of settlements and stresses in three‐dimensional problems. Simple applications are treated as examples. The operational calculus is shown to be a powerful method of solution of consolidation problems.

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  • FIG. 1. Settlement caused by consolidation as a function of time. Curve 1 represents the settlement of a column of height h under a load po. Curve 2 represents the settlement for an infinitely high column.
    FIG. 1. Settlement caused by consolidation as a function of time. Curve 1 represents the settlement of a column of height h under a load po. Curve 2 represents the settlement for an infinitely high column.
Topics: Consolidation (soil) (60%)

7,478 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.1368156
Abstract: We present a comprehensive, up-to-date compilation of band parameters for the technologically important III–V zinc blende and wurtzite compound semiconductors: GaAs, GaSb, GaP, GaN, AlAs, AlSb, AlP, AlN, InAs, InSb, InP, and InN, along with their ternary and quaternary alloys. Based on a review of the existing literature, complete and consistent parameter sets are given for all materials. Emphasizing the quantities required for band structure calculations, we tabulate the direct and indirect energy gaps, spin-orbit, and crystal-field splittings, alloy bowing parameters, effective masses for electrons, heavy, light, and split-off holes, Luttinger parameters, interband momentum matrix elements, and deformation potentials, including temperature and alloy-composition dependences where available. Heterostructure band offsets are also given, on an absolute scale that allows any material to be aligned relative to any other.

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Topics: Band gap (61%), Heterojunction (57%), Effective mass (solid-state physics) (54%) ...read more

5,816 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
20211,708
20202,106
20192,053
20182,123
20172,204
20162,360

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

David J. Sellmyer

207 papers, 4.5K citations

Mark J. Kushner

78 papers, 3.4K citations

James S. Speck

77 papers, 6.9K citations

Ralph Skomski

74 papers, 1.4K citations

David E. Laughlin

72 papers, 2.1K citations

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