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Peter K. Smith

Bio: Peter K. Smith is an academic researcher from University of Cambridge. The author has contributed to research in topics: Poison control & Population. The author has an hindex of 107, co-authored 855 publications receiving 49174 citations. Previous affiliations of Peter K. Smith include Yale University & Boston Children's Hospital.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two studies found cyberbullying less frequent than traditional bullying, but appreciable, and reported more outside of school than inside, and being a cybervictim, but not a cyberbully, correlated with internet use.
Abstract: Background: Cyberbullying describes bullying using mobile phones and the internet. Most previous studies have focused on the prevalence of text message and email bullying. Methods: Two surveys with pupils aged 11–16 years: (1) 92 pupils from 14 schools, supplemented by focus groups; (2) 533 pupils from 5 schools, to assess the generalisability of findings from the first study, and investigate relationships of cyberbullying to general internet use. Both studies differentiated cyberbullying inside and outside of school, and 7 media of cyberbullying. Results: Both studies found cyberbullying less frequent than traditional bullying, but appreciable, and reported more outside of school than inside. Phone call and text message bullying were most prevalent, with instant messaging bullying in the second study; their impact was perceived as comparable to traditional bullying. Mobile phone/video clip bullying, while rarer, was perceived to have more negative impact. Age and gender differences varied between the two studies. Study 1 found that most cyberbullying was done by one or a few students, usually from the same year group. It often just lasted about a week, but sometimes much longer. The second study found that being a cybervictim, but not a cyberbully, correlated with internet use; many cybervictims were traditional ‘bully-victims’. Pupils recommended blocking/avoiding messages, and telling someone, as the best coping strategies; but many cybervictims had told nobody about it. Conclusions: Cyberbullying is an important new kind of bullying, with some different characteristics from traditional bullying. Much happens outside school. Implications for research and practical action are discussed. Keywords: Bullying, victim, cyber, mobile phone, internet, adolescence, aggression, computers.

2,708 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There was a significant incidence of cyberbullying in lower secondary schools, less in sixth-form colleges, and gender differences were few.
Abstract: Cyberbullying has recently emerged as a new form of bullying and harassment. 360 adolescents (12–20 years), were surveyed to examine the nature and extent of cyberbullying in Swedish schools. Four categories of cyberbullying (by text message, email, phone call and picture/video clip) were examined in relation to age and gender, perceived impact, telling others, and perception of adults becoming aware of such bullying. There was a significant incidence of cyberbullying in lower secondary schools, less in sixth-form colleges. Gender differences were few. The impact of cyberbullying was perceived as highly negative for picture/video clip bullying. Cybervictims most often chose to either tell their friends or no one at all about the cyberbullying, so adults may not be aware of cyberbullying, and (apart from picture/video clip bullying) this is how it was perceived by pupils. Findings are discussed in relation to similarities and differences between cyberbullying and the more traditional forms of bullying.

1,539 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: The Nature of School Bullying provides a unique world-wide perspective on how different countries have conceptualized the issue of school bullying, what information has been gathered, and what interventions have been carried out as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Nature of School Bullying provides a unique world-wide perspective on how different countries have conceptualized the issue of school bullying, what information has been gathered, and what interventions have been carried out. Written and compiled by well known experts in the field, it provides a concise summary of the current state of knowledge of school bullying in nineteen different countries, including: * demographic details * definitions of bullying * the nature and types of school bullying * descriptive statistics about bullying * initiatives and interventions. The Nature of School Bullying provides an authoritative resource for anyone interested in ways in which this problem is being tackled on a global scale. It will be invaluable for teachers, educational policy makers, researchers, and all those concerned with understanding school bullying and finding ways of dealing with it.

1,321 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey service developed to assess bullying in schools, anonymous questionnaires were given to over 6,000 pupils in 17 junior/middle and seven secondary schools in the Sheffield LEA as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Summary As part of a survey service developed to assess bullying in schools, anonymous questionnaires were given to over 6,000 pupils in 17 junior/middle and seven secondary schools in the Sheffield LEA. The results are analysed in terms of frequencies of being bullied, and bullying others; year differences; gender differences; types of bullying; where bullying occurs; whether teachers and parents are informed; and attitudes to bullying. Rates of reported bullying are disturbingly high; they vary with year, gender and school location, partly as a result of opportunities for bullying. With the addition of data from six other schools, it was found that school size, class size and ethnic mix were not linked with bullying. Social disadvantage is linked with bullying to a small extent, and schools with high bullying rates also tend to have pupils who dislike, or are alone at, playtime. Implications for intervention against bullying are briefly discussed.

1,310 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is generally believed that the teacher is the nation builder as mentioned in this paper, and therefore it is important that these same issues be addressed with access to the necessary resources or controls for small business.

970 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

Book
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols.
Abstract: From the Publisher: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols; more than 200 tables and figures; more than 1,000 numbered definitions, facts, examples, notes, and remarks; and over 1,250 significant references, including brief comments on each paper.

13,597 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality.

13,415 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Seven major types of sampling for observational studies of social behavior have been found in the literature and the major strengths and weaknesses of each method are pointed out.
Abstract: Seven major types of sampling for observational studies of social behavior have been found in the literature. These methods differ considerably in their suitability for providing unbiased data of various kinds. Below is a summary of the major recommended uses of each technique: In this paper, I have tried to point out the major strengths and weaknesses of each sampling method. Some methods are intrinsically biased with respect to many variables, others to fewer. In choosing a sampling method the main question is whether the procedure results in a biased sample of the variables under study. A method can produce a biased sample directly, as a result of intrinsic bias with respect to a study variable, or secondarily due to some degree of dependence (correlation) between the study variable and a directly-biased variable. In order to choose a sampling technique, the observer needs to consider carefully the characteristics of behavior and social interactions that are relevant to the study population and the research questions at hand. In most studies one will not have adequate empirical knowledge of the dependencies between relevant variables. Under the circumstances, the observer should avoid intrinsic biases to whatever extent possible, in particular those that direcly affect the variables under study. Finally, it will often be possible to use more than one sampling method in a study. Such samples can be taken successively or, under favorable conditions, even concurrently. For example, we have found it possible to take Instantaneous Samples of the identities and distances of nearest neighbors of a focal individual at five or ten minute intervals during Focal-Animal (behavior) Samples on that individual. Often during Focal-Animal Sampling one can also record All Occurrences of Some Behaviors, for the whole social group, for categories of conspicuous behavior, such as predation, intergroup contact, drinking, and so on. The extent to which concurrent multiple sampling is feasible will depend very much on the behavior categories and rate of occurrence, the observational conditions, etc. Where feasible, such multiple sampling can greatly aid in the efficient use of research time.

12,470 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Abstract: In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.

9,580 citations