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Author

Sebastian Jäger

Bio: Sebastian Jäger is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Oleanolic acid & Betulin. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 23 publication(s) receiving 931 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity and are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents.
Abstract: Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter) plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark), betulinic acid (plane bark), oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers), ursolic acid (apple pomace) or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves) are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations.

441 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The triterpene acid content of neutral plant extracts above the solubility limit could be due to interactions with biocolloids, and different mechanisms of the dissolution at pH 7.3 and pH 10.2 are discussed.
Abstract: Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) contains the triterpene acids oleanolic acid (OA) and betulinic acid (BA), which were found to have anti-tumour properties. In this study, the solubilities of OA and BA were studied in water (up to 0.02 microg/mL in each case) and in alkaline solutions of 10 mM trisodium phosphate (pH 11.5; OA: 77.2 microg/mL; BA: 40.1 microg/mL). Furthermore, triterpene acids were quantified in aqueous mistletoe extracts (pH 7.3; drug to extract ratio 1:25). OA (1.1 microg/mL) and BA (0.9 microg/mL) were extracted with a yield of less than 5%. Preparing plant extracts with basic pH values resulted in a triterpene acid content of 9.3 microg/mL OA and 5.2 microg/mL BA (pH 12.1), reaching neither the solubility limits nor a complete extraction of the plant material. The triterpene acid content of neutral plant extracts above the solubility limit could be due to interactions with biocolloids. Interaction studies were performed by gel permeation chromatography. Different mechanisms of the dissolution at pH 7.3 and pH 10.2 are discussed.

106 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs show triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpenes biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.
Abstract: During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE) from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 microg/mL respectively), for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p.) and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.). I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 microg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 microg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p.) and dogs (s.c.). In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

101 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental data support the notion from a previous clinical study that TE from the outer bark of birch might represent a new tool for the topical treatment of skin cancer and skin cancer precursors like actinic keratoses.
Abstract: Triterpenes are biologically active secondary plant substances that display antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the poor solubility of triterpenes in both polar and non-polar solvents as well as expensive purification procedures have prevented the large-scale isolation of these compounds for medicinal purposes. Here, we describe a novel quantitative extraction method of triterpenes from the outer bark of birch (Betula species) in which betulin, a lupan triterpene, predominates. The resulting highly purified triterpene extract (TE) in the form of a dry powder contains betulin as the major compound, but also betulinic acid, lupeol, erythrodiol and oleanolic acid. We have found that this TE is able to form an oleogel, thus providing an opportunity for the topical application of pharmacologically relevant amounts of triterpenes. Furthermore, we have investigated the TE in comparison to its major isolated compounds in cell culture experiments with human immortalized keratinocytes and skin cancer cells. We could demonstrate dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of TE and betulin. These experimental data support the notion from a previous clinical study that TE from the outer bark of birch might represent a new tool for the topical treatment of skin cancer and skin cancer precursors like actinic keratoses.

81 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings suggest the use of STE from mistletoe as a solvent‐free anticancer drug for preclinical animal experiments and clinical trials.
Abstract: The European mistletoe Viscum album L. is a plant used for remedies in cancer treatment. The benefit of commonly used aqueous extracts is controversial but the plant contains water insoluble triterpene acids providing interesting anticancer properties. Triterpene extracts (TE) from plants and single triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid (OA) or betulinic acid (BA) are known for their cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines in vitro. We report here cytotoxic effects of a novel OA-rich triterpene extract from mistletoe (V. album L., Santalaceae) solubilized by 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP-β-CD) on B16.F10 mouse melanoma cells. The 2-HP-β-CD solubilized triterpene extract (STE) was highly cytotoxic by causing DNA fragmentation, followed by loss of membrane integrity and intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Blocking the caspase machinery by inhibitors aborted DNA fragmentation and delayed the cytotoxic effects but did not prevent cell death. The solubilization by 2-HP-β-CD allows a solvent-free application of triterpene extracts in the in vitro setting. These findings suggest the use of STE from mistletoe as a solvent-free anticancer drug for preclinical animal experiments and clinical trials.

30 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Apr 2009-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: BE induces apoptosis utilizing a similar mechanism as BetA and is prevented by cyclosporin A (CsA), which indicates that BE has potent anti-tumor activity especially in combination with cholesterol.
Abstract: Betulinic Acid (BetA) and its derivatives have been extensively studied in the past for their anti-tumor effects, but relatively little is known about its precursor Betulin (BE). We found that BE induces apoptosis utilizing a similar mechanism as BetA and is prevented by cyclosporin A (CsA). BE induces cell death more rapidly as compared to BetA, but to achieve similar amounts of cell death a considerably higher concentration of BE is needed. Interestingly, we observed that cholesterol sensitized cells to BE-induced apoptosis, while there was no effect of cholesterol when combined with BetA. Despite the significantly enhanced cytotoxicity, the mode of cell death was not changed as CsA completely abrogated cell death. These results indicate that BE has potent anti-tumor activity especially in combination with cholesterol.

564 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity and are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents.
Abstract: Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter) plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark), betulinic acid (plane bark), oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers), ursolic acid (apple pomace) or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves) are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations.

441 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes the potential of triterpenes belonging to the lupane, oleanane or ursane group, to treat cancer by different modes of action and utilisation of different plants as their sources is of interest.
Abstract: Today cancer treatment is not only a question of eliminating cancer cells by induction of cell death. New therapeutic strategies also include targeting the tumour microenvironment, avoiding angiogenesis, modulating the immune response or the chronic inflammation that is often associated with cancer. Furthermore, the induction of redifferentiation of dedifferentiated cancer cells is an interesting aspect in developing new therapy strategies. Plants provide a broad spectrum of potential drug substances for cancer therapy with multifaceted effects and targets. Pentacyclic triterpenes are one group of promising secondary plant metabolites. This review summarizes the potential of triterpenes belonging to the lupane, oleanane or ursane group, to treat cancer by different modes of action. Since Pisha et al. reported in 1995 that betulinic acid is a highly promising anticancer drug after inducing apoptosis in melanoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo, experimental work focused on the apoptosis inducing mechanisms of betulinic acid and other triterpenes. The antitumour effects were subsequently confirmed in a series of cancer cell lines from other origins, for example breast, colon, lung and neuroblastoma. In addition, in the last decade many studies have shown further effects that justify the expectation that triterpenes are useful to treat cancer by several modes of action. Thus, triterpene acids are known mainly for their antiangiogenic effects as well as their differentiation inducing effects. In particular, lupane-type triterpenes, such as betulin, betulinic acid and lupeol, display anti-inflammatory activities which often accompany immune modulation. Triterpene acids as well as triterpene monoalcohols and diols also show an antioxidative potential. The pharmacological potential of triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane or ursane type for cancer treatment seems high; although up to now no clinical trial has been published using these triterpenes in cancer therapy. They provide a multitarget potential for coping with new cancer strategies. Whether this is an effective approach for cancer treatment has to be proven. Because various triterpenes are an increasingly promising group of plant metabolites, the utilisation of different plants as their sources is of interest. Parts of plants, for example birch bark, rosemary leaves, apple peel and mistletoe shoots are rich in triterpenes and provide different triterpene compositions.

387 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite.
Abstract: We confirmed the ability of the triterpenoid betulin to protect against neurotoxicity caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations and examined its capability of in vivo protection using the rat external popliteal/sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior (EPSTA) preparation. Venom caused complete, irreversible blockade in PND (40 μg/mL), but only partial blockade (~30%) in EPSTA (3.6 mg/kg, i.m.) after 120 min. In PND, preincubation of venom with commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA) attenuated the venom-induced blockade, and, in EPSTA, CBA given i.v. 15 min after venom also attenuated the blockade (by ~70% in both preparations). Preincubation of venom with betulin (200 μg/mL) markedly attenuated the venom-induced blockade in PND; similarly, a single dose of betulin (20 mg, i.p., 15 min after venom) virtually abolished the venom-induced decrease in contractility. Plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly elevated 120 min after venom injection in the EPSTA but was attenuated by CBA and betulin. These results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy as CBA given i.v. in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite.

371 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Karen T. Liby1, Michael B. Sporn1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: In these interactions, the addition of SOs to reactive cysteine residues in specific molecular targets triggers biological activity, Ultimately, SOs are multifunctional drugs that regulate the activity of entire networks.
Abstract: We review the rationale for the use of synthetic oleanane triterpenoids (SOs) for prevention and treatment of disease, as well as extensive biological data on this topic resulting from both cell culture and in vivo studies. Emphasis is placed on understanding mechanisms of action. SOs are noncytotoxic drugs with an excellent safety profile. Several hundred SOs have now been synthesized and in vitro have been shown to: 1) suppress inflammation and oxidative stress and therefore be cytoprotective, especially at low nanomolar doses, 2) induce differentiation, and 3) block cell proliferation and induce apoptosis at higher micromolar doses. Animal data on the use of SOs in neurodegenerative diseases and in diseases of the eye, lung, cardiovascular system, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidney, as well as in cancer and in metabolic and inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, are reviewed. The importance of the cytoprotective Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology-associated protein 1/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/antioxidant response element (Keap1/Nrf2/ARE) pathway as a mechanism of action is explained, but interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PARPγ), inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase complex (IKK), janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/ErbB2/neu, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the thiol proteome are also described. In these interactions, Michael addition of SOs to reactive cysteine residues in specific molecular targets triggers biological activity. Ultimately, SOs are multifunctional drugs that regulate the activity of entire networks. Recent progress in the earliest clinical trials with 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) methyl ester (bardoxolone methyl) is also summarized.

306 citations


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Performance
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Author's H-index: 11

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20181
20171
20161
20151
20131
20122