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Søren Bækhøj Kjær

Bio: Søren Bækhøj Kjær is an academic researcher from Aalborg University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Photovoltaic system & Maximum power point tracking. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 25 publications receiving 8753 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid and categorize the inverters into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the kind of grid-connected power stage.
Abstract: This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications.

3,530 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems.
Abstract: The global electrical energy consumption is rising and there is a steady increase of the demand on the power capacity, efficient production, distribution and utilization of energy. The traditional power systems are changing globally, a large number of dispersed generation (DG) units, including both renewable and nonrenewable energy sources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells, small hydro, wave generators, and gas/steam powered combined heat and power stations, are being integrated into power systems at the distribution level. Power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems. This paper reviews the applications of power electronics in the integration of DG units, in particular, wind power, fuel cells and PV generators.

2,296 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems.
Abstract: The global electrical energy consumption is rising and there is a steady increase of the demand on the power capacity, efficient production, distribution and utilization of energy. The traditional power systems are changing globally, a large number of dispersed generation (DG) units, including both renewable and nonrenewable energy sources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells, small hydro, wave generators, and gas/steam powered combined heat and power stations, are being integrated into power systems at the distribution level. Power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems. This paper reviews the applications of power electronics in the integration of DG units, in particular, wind power, fuel cells and PV generators.

2,076 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Jun 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, a modified version of the inverter proposed by Shimizu et al. solves a major problem within the original topology; regeneration of transformer leakage energy, and a decomposition of the currents and voltages inside the inverters is used to derive the stress and power losses.
Abstract: The objective for this paper is to present a novel inverter topology for photovoltaic (PV) applications, in particular for the AC-module. A modified version of the inverter proposed by Shimizu et al. solves a major problem within the original topology; regeneration of transformer leakage energy. Also presented is a decomposition of the currents and voltages inside the inverter. The decomposition is used to derive the stress and power losses, and hereby developing a tool for optimizing the inverter in terms of efficiency and ratings. Finally, the developed tool is used to design an inverter. The annual European efficiency is calculated to 81.8% for a 160 W inverter, which is regarded as high for an inverter for AC-module applications, as long the cost can be kept low.

251 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
10 Dec 2002
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the latest development of inverters for photovoltaic AC-modules and propose a plug-and-play concept for the AC-module, which can provide a modular design and a flexible behavior in various grid conditions.
Abstract: This review-paper focuses on the latest development of inverters for photovoltaic AC-modules. The power range for these inverters is usually within 90 Watt to 500 Watt, which covers the most commercial photovoltaic-modules. Self-commutated inverters have replaced the grid-commutated ones. The same is true for the bulky low-frequency transformers versus the high-frequency transformers, which are used to adapt the voltage level. The AC-module provides a modular design and a flexible behaviour in various grid conditions. It hereby opens the market for photovoltaic-power for everyone at a low cost due to the plug and play concept, which also makes a further enlargement of the system possible.

251 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the structures for the DPGS based on fuel cell, photovoltaic, and wind turbines is given and the possibility of compensation for low-order harmonics is discussed.
Abstract: Renewable energy sources like wind, sun, and hydro are seen as a reliable alternative to the traditional energy sources such as oil, natural gas, or coal. Distributed power generation systems (DPGSs) based on renewable energy sources experience a large development worldwide, with Germany, Denmark, Japan, and USA as leaders in the development in this field. Due to the increasing number of DPGSs connected to the utility network, new and stricter standards in respect to power quality, safe running, and islanding protection are issued. As a consequence, the control of distributed generation systems should be improved to meet the requirements for grid interconnection. This paper gives an overview of the structures for the DPGS based on fuel cell, photovoltaic, and wind turbines. In addition, control structures of the grid-side converter are presented, and the possibility of compensation for low-order harmonics is also discussed. Moreover, control strategies when running on grid faults are treated. This paper ends up with an overview of synchronization methods and a discussion about their importance in the control

4,655 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New trends in power electronics for the integration of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generators are presented and a review of the appropriate storage-system technology used for the Integration of intermittent renewable energy sources is introduced.
Abstract: The use of distributed energy resources is increasingly being pursued as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power stations. The specification of a power-electronic interface is subject to requirements related not only to the renewable energy source itself but also to its effects on the power-system operation, especially where the intermittent energy source constitutes a significant part of the total system capacity. In this paper, new trends in power electronics for the integration of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generators are presented. A review of the appropriate storage-system technology used for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources is also introduced. Discussions about common and future trends in renewable energy systems based on reliability and maturity of each technology are presented

3,799 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid and categorize the inverters into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the kind of grid-connected power stage.
Abstract: This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications.

3,530 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry.
Abstract: Multilevel converters have been under research and development for more than three decades and have found successful industrial application. However, this is still a technology under development, and many new contributions and new commercial topologies have been reported in the last few years. The aim of this paper is to group and review these recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, to provide readers with a comprehensive and insightful review of where multilevel converter technology stands and is heading. This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry. In addition, new promising topologies are discussed. Recent advances made in modulation and control of multilevel converters are also addressed. A great part of this paper is devoted to show nontraditional applications powered by multilevel converters and how multilevel converters are becoming an enabling technology in many industrial sectors. Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of this technology are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

3,415 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems.
Abstract: The global electrical energy consumption is rising and there is a steady increase of the demand on the power capacity, efficient production, distribution and utilization of energy. The traditional power systems are changing globally, a large number of dispersed generation (DG) units, including both renewable and nonrenewable energy sources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells, small hydro, wave generators, and gas/steam powered combined heat and power stations, are being integrated into power systems at the distribution level. Power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems. This paper reviews the applications of power electronics in the integration of DG units, in particular, wind power, fuel cells and PV generators.

2,296 citations