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Steven B. Heymsfield

Bio: Steven B. Heymsfield is an academic researcher from Pennington Biomedical Research Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Body mass index & Weight loss. The author has an hindex of 132, co-authored 679 publications receiving 77220 citations. Previous affiliations of Steven B. Heymsfield include Harvard University & American College of Physicians.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Some of the first estimates of the extent of the public health problem posed by sarcopenia are provided, independent of ethnicity, age, morbidity, obesity, income, and health behaviors.
Abstract: Muscle mass decreases with age, leading to "sarcopenia," or low relative muscle mass, in elderly people. Sarcopenia is believed to be associated with metabolic, physiologic, and functional impairments and disability. Methods of estimating the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associated risks in elderly populations are lacking. Data from a population-based survey of 883 elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men and women living in New Mexico (the New Mexico Elder Health Survey, 1993-1995) were analyzed to develop a method for estimating the prevalence of sarcopenia. An anthropometric equation for predicting appendicular skeletal muscle mass was developed from a random subsample (n = 199) of participants and was extended to the total sample. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass (kg)/height2 (m2) being less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group. Prevalences increased from 13-24% in persons under 70 years of age to >50% in persons over 80 years of age, and were slightly greater in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic whites. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with self-reported physical disability in both men and women, independent of ethnicity, age, morbidity, obesity, income, and health behaviors. This study provides some of the first estimates of the extent of the public health problem posed by sarcopenia.

3,478 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To establish the prevalence of sarc Openia in older Americans and to test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is related to functional impairment and physical disability in older persons is established.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Americans and to test the hypothesis that sarcope- nia is related to functional impairment and physical dis- ability in older persons. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Nationally representative cross-sectional sur- vey using data from the Third National Health and Nutri- tion Examination Survey (NHANES III). PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen thousand eight hundred eigh- teen adult NHANES III participants aged 18 and older. MEASUREMENTS: The presence of sarcopenia and the relationship between sarcopenia and functional impairment and disability were examined in 4,504 adults aged 60 and older. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated from bioimped- ance analysis measurements and expressed as skeletal mus- cle mass index (SMIskeletal muscle mass/body mass � 100). Subjects were considered to have a normal SMI if their SMI was greater than -one standard deviation above the sex-specific mean for young adults (aged 18-39). Class I sarcopenia was considered present in subjects whose SMI was within -one to -two standard deviations of young adult values, and class II sarcopenia was present in subjects whose SMI was below -two standard deviations of young adult values. RESULTS: The prevalence of class I and class II sarcope- nia increased from the third to sixth decades but remained relatively constant thereafter. The prevalence of class I (59% vs 45%) and class II (10% vs 7%) sarcopenia was greater in the older ( � 60 years) women than in the older men ( P � .001). The likelihood of functional impairment and disability was approximately two times greater in the older men and three times greater in the older women with class II sarcopenia than in the older men and women with a normal SMI, respectively. Some of the associations be- tween class II sarcopenia and functional impairment re- mained significant after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, health behaviors, and comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced relative skeletal muscle mass in older Americans is a common occurrence that is signifi- cantly and independently associated with functional im- pairment and disability, particularly in older women. These observations provide strong support for the prevailing view that sarcopenia may be an important and potentially re- versible cause of morbidity and mortality in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:889-896, 2002.

2,710 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that men have more SM than women and that these gender differences are greater in the upper body.
Abstract: We employed a whole body magnetic resonance imaging protocol to examine the influence of age, gender, body weight, and height on skeletal muscle (SM) mass and distribution in a large and heterogene...

2,361 citations

01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: For example, this article found that older age, postmenopausal status, Mexican American ethnicity, higher body mass index, current smoking, low household income, high carbohydrate intake, no alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with increased odds of metabolic syndrome.
Abstract: Background: The metabolic syndrome is an importantclusterofcoronaryheartdiseaseriskfactorswithcommon insulin resistance. The extent to which the metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors in the US population is unknown. Methods: Metabolic syndrome–associated factors and prevalence, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria,wereevaluatedinarepresentativeUSsampleof3305 black,3477MexicanAmerican,and5581whitemenand nonpregnantorlactatingwomenaged20yearsandolder who participated in the cross-sectional Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: The metabolic syndrome was present in 22.8% and 22.6% of US men and women, respectively (P=.86). The age-specific prevalence was highest in Mexican Americans and lowest in blacks of both sexes. Ethnic differences persisted even after adjusting for age, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. The metabolic syndrome was present in 4.6%, 22.4%, and 59.6% of normal-weight, overweight, and obese men, respectively, and a similar distribution was observed in women. Older age, postmenopausal status, Mexican American ethnicity, higher body mass index, current smoking, low household income, high carbohydrate intake, no alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with increased odds of the metabolic syndrome.

1,967 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Older age, postmenopausal status, Mexican American ethnicity, higher body mass index, current smoking, low household income, high carbohydrate intake, no alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with increased odds of the metabolic syndrome.
Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States.1 Factors associated with an increased risk of developing CHD that tend to cluster in individuals include older age, high blood pressure, a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a high triglyceride level, a high plasma glucose concentration, and obesity.2 These associated risk factors have been called syndrome X,3 the insulin resistance syndrome,4 or the metabolic syndrome.5 The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however, resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors.3,6,7 Insulin resistance is thought to be primarily due to obesity or an inherited genetic defect.8 As the prevalence of obesity increases in the United States, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome may be expected to increase markedly. Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome have varied substantially in part because of the variability of evaluated populations and of diagnostic criteria.9 The recent Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) included clinical diagnosis guidelines for the metabolic syndrome.10 Compared with findings from earlier studies3-5 and World Health Organization guidelines, the new ATP III defines criteria readily measured in clinical practice. These consensus-generated guidelines provide the opportunity to assess the overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the US population according to an accepted standard definition. In an initial study, Ford et al11 reported un-adjusted and age-adjusted metabolic syndrome prevalences of 21.8% and 23.7%, respectively, for the US population. The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by ethnicity, age, body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors.

1,950 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In those older than age 50, systolic blood pressure of greater than 140 mm Hg is a more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP, and hypertension will be controlled only if patients are motivated to stay on their treatment plan.
Abstract: The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic blood pressure (BP) of greater than 140 mm Hg is a more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, CVD risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; those who are normotensive at 55 years of age will have a 90% lifetime risk of developing hypertension; prehypertensive individuals (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg) require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent the progressive rise in blood pressure and CVD; for uncomplicated hypertension, thiazide diuretic should be used in drug treatment for most, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes; this report delineates specific high-risk conditions that are compelling indications for the use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); two or more antihypertensive medications will be required to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg) for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease; for patients whose BP is more than 20 mm Hg above the systolic BP goal or more than 10 mm Hg above the diastolic BP goal, initiation of therapy using two agents, one of which usually will be a thiazide diuretic, should be considered; regardless of therapy or care, hypertension will be controlled only if patients are motivated to stay on their treatment plan. Positive experiences, trust in the clinician, and empathy improve patient motivation and satisfaction. This report serves as a guide, and the committee continues to recognize that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount.

14,975 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this study was to develop an equation from MDRD Study data that could improve the prediction of GFR from serum creatinine concentration, and major clinical decisions in general medicine, geriatrics, and oncology are made by using the Cockcroft-Gault formula and other formulas to predict the level of renal function.
Abstract: The serum creatinine concentration is widely used as an index of renal function, but this measure is affected by factors other than the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This study examined an equa...

14,711 citations

Christopher M. Bishop1
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This statement from the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is intended to provide up-to-date guidance for professionals on the diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome in adults.
Abstract: The metabolic syndrome has received increased attention in the past few years. This statement from the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is intended to provide up-to-date guidance for professionals on the diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome in adults. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin— metabolic risk factors —that appear to directly promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).1 Patients with the metabolic syndrome also are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Another set of conditions, the underlying risk factors , give rise to the metabolic risk factors. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria to be used in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general they include a combination of both underlying and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics commonly manifest a prothrombotic state and a pro-inflammatory state as well. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB), increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of ASCVD risk factors, but one that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to which components of the syndrome are …

9,982 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: For the next few weeks the course is going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach it’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery.
Abstract: So far in this course we have dealt entirely with the evolution of characters that are controlled by simple Mendelian inheritance at a single locus. There are notes on the course website about gametic disequilibrium and how allele frequencies change at two loci simultaneously, but we didn’t discuss them. In every example we’ve considered we’ve imagined that we could understand something about evolution by examining the evolution of a single gene. That’s the domain of classical population genetics. For the next few weeks we’re going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach we’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery. If you know a little about the history of evolutionary biology, you may know that after the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900 there was a heated debate between the “biometricians” (e.g., Galton and Pearson) and the “Mendelians” (e.g., de Vries, Correns, Bateson, and Morgan). Biometricians asserted that the really important variation in evolution didn’t follow Mendelian rules. Height, weight, skin color, and similar traits seemed to

9,847 citations