Journal of Applied Physiology
American Physiological Society
About: Journal of Applied Physiology is an academic journal published by American Physiological Society. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Skeletal muscle & Hypoxia (medical). It has an ISSN identifier of 1522-1601. Over the lifetime, 31950 publications have been published receiving 1745058 citations. The journal is also known as: Journal of applied physiology online.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: From incremental exercise tests on 10 subjects, the point of excess CO2 output (AT) predicted closely the lactate and HCO-3 thresholds and could be more reliably determined by the V-slope method.
Abstract: Excess CO2 is generated when lactate is increased during exercise because its [H+] is buffered primarily by HCO-3 (22 ml for each meq of lactic acid). We developed a method to detect the anaerobic threshold (AT), using computerized regression analysis of the slopes of the CO2 uptake (VCO2) vs. O2 uptake (VO2) plot, which detects the beginning of the excess CO2 output generated from the buffering of [H+], termed the V-slope method. From incremental exercise tests on 10 subjects, the point of excess CO2 output (AT) predicted closely the lactate and HCO-3 thresholds. The mean gas exchange AT was found to correspond to a small increment of lactate above the mathematically defined lactate threshold [0.50 +/- 0.34 (SD) meq/l] and not to differ significantly from the estimated HCO-3 threshold. The mean VO2 at AT computed by the V-slope analysis did not differ significantly from the mean value determined by a panel of six experienced reviewers using traditional visual methods, but the AT could be more reliably determined by the V-slope method. The respiratory compensation point, detected separately by examining the minute ventilation vs. VCO2 plot, was consistently higher than the AT (2.51 +/- 0.42 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.30 l/min of VO2). This method for determining the AT has significant advantages over others that depend on regular breathing pattern and respiratory chemosensitivity.
TL;DR: Changes in PV calculated from the increase in plasma protein concentration averaged 7.5(z compared with 12.2 y0 calculated from changes in Hb and Hct, the difference could be accounted for by a loss of 6v10 plasma protein from the circulation.
Abstract: DILL, D. B., AND I>. L. &STILL. Calculation of pcrccntage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J. Appl. Physiol. 37(2): 247-248. 1974.-Observations on hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were Inade in six men before and after running long enough to cause a 4y0 decrease in body weight. Subscripts B and A were used to denote before dehydration and after dehydration, respectively. Relations were derived between BVn, BVA, Hbn, HbA, Hctg, and HctA with which one can calculate the percentage decreases in BV, CV, and PV, as well as the concentration of hemoglobin in red cells, g. 100 ml-l (MCHC). When subjects reach the same level of dehydration the water loss from the various body compartments may vary reflecting difference in salt losses in sweat. Changes in PV calculated from the increase in plasma protein concentration averaged 7.5(z compared with 12.2 y0 calculated from changes in Hb and Hct. The difference could be accounted for by a loss of 6v10 plasma protein from the circulation.
TL;DR: It is suggested that myokines may be involved in mediating the health-beneficial effects of exercise and that these in particular are involved in the protection against chronic diseases associated with low-grade inflammation such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract: Regular exercise offers protection against all-cause mortality, primarily by protection against cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The latter disorders have been associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation reflected by a two- to threefold elevated level of several cytokines. Adipose tissue contributes to the production of TNF-alpha, which is reflected by elevated levels of soluble TNF-alpha receptors, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and C-reactive protein. We suggest that TNF-alpha rather than IL-6 is the driver behind insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and that IL-6 is a marker of the metabolic syndrome, rather than a cause. During exercise, IL-6 is produced by muscle fibers via a TNF-independent pathway. IL-6 stimulates the appearance in the circulation of other anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ra and IL-10 and inhibits the production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. In addition, IL-6 enhances lipid turnover, stimulating lipolysis as well as fat oxidation. We suggest that regular exercise induces suppression of TNF-alpha and thereby offers protection against TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance. Recently, IL-6 was introduced as the first myokine, defined as a cytokine that is produced and released by contracting skeletal muscle fibers, exerting its effects in other organs of the body. Here we suggest that myokines may be involved in mediating the health-beneficial effects of exercise and that these in particular are involved in the protection against chronic diseases associated with low-grade inflammation such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
TL;DR: It is indicated that men have more SM than women and that these gender differences are greater in the upper body.
Abstract: We employed a whole body magnetic resonance imaging protocol to examine the influence of age, gender, body weight, and height on skeletal muscle (SM) mass and distribution in a large and heterogene...