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Walter Pitts

Bio: Walter Pitts is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Existential quantification & Propositional calculus. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 23 publications receiving 21238 citations. Previous affiliations of Walter Pitts include University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign & University of Chicago.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that many particular choices among possible neurophysiological assumptions are equivalent, in the sense that for every net behaving under one assumption, there exists another net which behaves under another and gives the same results, although perhaps not in the same time.

14,937 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: It is shown that many particular choices among possible neurophysiological assumptions are equivalent, in the sense that for every net behaving under one assumption, there exists another net which behaves under the other and gives the same results, although perhaps not in the same time.
Abstract: Because of the “all-or-none” character of nervous activity, neural events and the relations among them can be treated by means of propositional logic. It is found that the behavior of every net can be described in these terms, with the addition of more complicated logical means for nets containing circles; and that for any logical expression satisfying certain conditions, one can find a net behaving in the fashion it describes. It is shown that many particular choices among possible neurophysiological assumptions are equivalent, in the sense that for every net behaving under one assumption, there exists another net which behaves under the other and gives the same results, although perhaps not in the same time. Various applications of the calculus are discussed.

4,109 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1959
TL;DR: The results show that for the most part within that area of the optic nerve of a frog, it is not the light intensity itself but rather the pattern of local variation of intensity that is the exciting factor.
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the activity of single fibers in the optic nerve of a frog. Our method is to find what sort of stimulus causes the largest activity in one nerve fiber and then what is the exciting aspect of that stimulus such that variations in everything else cause little change in the response. It has been known for the past 20 years that each fiber is connected not to a few rods and cones in the retina but to very many over a fair area. Our results show that for the most part within that area, it is not the light intensity itself but rather the pattern of local variation of intensity that is the exciting factor. There are four types of fibers, each type concerned with a different sort of pattern. Each type is uniformly distributed over the whole retina of the frog. Thus, there are four distinct parallel distributed channels whereby the frog's eye informs his brain about the visual image in terms of local pattern independent of average illumination. We describe the patterns and show the functional and anatomical separation of the channels. This work has been done on the frog, and our interpretation applies only to the frog.

1,788 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two neural mechanisms are described which exhibit recognition of forms which are independent of small perturbations at synapses of excitation, threshold, and synchrony, and are referred to partiular appropriate regions of the nervous system, thus suggesting experimental verification.

753 citations


Cited by
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Book
18 Nov 2016
TL;DR: Deep learning as mentioned in this paper is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts, and it is used in many applications such as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames.
Abstract: Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

38,208 citations

Book
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: This book provides a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning, which ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications.
Abstract: Reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence, is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives when interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. In Reinforcement Learning, Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning. Their discussion ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications. The only necessary mathematical background is familiarity with elementary concepts of probability. The book is divided into three parts. Part I defines the reinforcement learning problem in terms of Markov decision processes. Part II provides basic solution methods: dynamic programming, Monte Carlo methods, and temporal-difference learning. Part III presents a unified view of the solution methods and incorporates artificial neural networks, eligibility traces, and planning; the two final chapters present case studies and consider the future of reinforcement learning.

37,989 citations

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: This is the first comprehensive treatment of feed-forward neural networks from the perspective of statistical pattern recognition, and is designed as a text, with over 100 exercises, to benefit anyone involved in the fields of neural computation and pattern recognition.
Abstract: From the Publisher: This is the first comprehensive treatment of feed-forward neural networks from the perspective of statistical pattern recognition. After introducing the basic concepts, the book examines techniques for modelling probability density functions and the properties and merits of the multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function network models. Also covered are various forms of error functions, principal algorithms for error function minimalization, learning and generalization in neural networks, and Bayesian techniques and their applications. Designed as a text, with over 100 exercises, this fully up-to-date work will benefit anyone involved in the fields of neural computation and pattern recognition.

19,056 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium, review deep supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.

14,635 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The chapter discusses two important directions of research to improve learning algorithms: the dynamic node generation, which is used by the cascade correlation algorithm; and designing learning algorithms where the choice of parameters is not an issue.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter provides an account of different neural network architectures for pattern recognition. A neural network consists of several simple processing elements called neurons. Each neuron is connected to some other neurons and possibly to the input nodes. Neural networks provide a simple computing paradigm to perform complex recognition tasks in real time. The chapter categorizes neural networks into three types: single-layer networks, multilayer feedforward networks, and feedback networks. It discusses the gradient descent and the relaxation method as the two underlying mathematical themes for deriving learning algorithms. A lot of research activity is centered on learning algorithms because of their fundamental importance in neural networks. The chapter discusses two important directions of research to improve learning algorithms: the dynamic node generation, which is used by the cascade correlation algorithm; and designing learning algorithms where the choice of parameters is not an issue. It closes with the discussion of performance and implementation issues.

13,033 citations