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Wengong Jin

Bio: Wengong Jin is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Generative model & Graph (abstract data type). The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 45 publications receiving 2352 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
20 Feb 2020-Cell
TL;DR: A deep neural network capable of predicting molecules with antibacterial activity is trained and a molecule from the Drug Repurposing Hub-halicin- is discovered that is structurally divergent from conventional antibiotics and displays bactericidal activity against a wide phylogenetic spectrum of pathogens.

1,002 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a graph convolutional model that consistently matches or outperforms models using fixed molecular descriptors as well as previous graph neural architectures on both public and proprietary data sets is presented.
Abstract: Advancements in neural machinery have led to a wide range of algorithmic solutions for molecular property prediction. Two classes of models in particular have yielded promising results: neural networks applied to computed molecular fingerprints or expert-crafted descriptors and graph convolutional neural networks that construct a learned molecular representation by operating on the graph structure of the molecule. However, recent literature has yet to clearly determine which of these two methods is superior when generalizing to new chemical space. Furthermore, prior research has rarely examined these new models in industry research settings in comparison to existing employed models. In this paper, we benchmark models extensively on 19 public and 16 proprietary industrial data sets spanning a wide variety of chemical end points. In addition, we introduce a graph convolutional model that consistently matches or outperforms models using fixed molecular descriptors as well as previous graph neural architectures on both public and proprietary data sets. Our empirical findings indicate that while approaches based on these representations have yet to reach the level of experimental reproducibility, our proposed model nevertheless offers significant improvements over models currently used in industrial workflows.

605 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: The junction tree variational autoencoder generates molecular graphs in two phases, by first generating a tree-structured scaffold over chemical substructures, and then combining them into a molecule with a graph message passing network, which allows for incrementally expand molecules while maintaining chemical validity at every step.
Abstract: We seek to automate the design of molecules based on specific chemical properties. In computational terms, this task involves continuous embedding and generation of molecular graphs. Our primary contribution is the direct realization of molecular graphs, a task previously approached by generating linear SMILES strings instead of graphs. Our junction tree variational autoencoder generates molecular graphs in two phases, by first generating a tree-structured scaffold over chemical substructures, and then combining them into a molecule with a graph message passing network. This approach allows us to incrementally expand molecules while maintaining chemical validity at every step. We evaluate our model on multiple tasks ranging from molecular generation to optimization. Across these tasks, our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art baselines by a significant margin.

528 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: A graph convolutional model is introduced that consistently matches or outperforms models using fixed molecular descriptors as well as previous graph neural architectures on both public and proprietary data sets.
Abstract: Advancements in neural machinery have led to a wide range of algorithmic solutions for molecular property prediction. Two classes of models in particular have yielded promising results: neural networks applied to computed molecular fingerprints or expert-crafted descriptors, and graph convolutional neural networks that construct a learned molecular representation by operating on the graph structure of the molecule. However, recent literature has yet to clearly determine which of these two methods is superior when generalizing to new chemical space. Furthermore, prior research has rarely examined these new models in industry research settings in comparison to existing employed models. In this paper, we benchmark models extensively on 19 public and 16 proprietary industrial datasets spanning a wide variety of chemical endpoints. In addition, we introduce a graph convolutional model that consistently matches or outperforms models using fixed molecular descriptors as well as previous graph neural architectures on both public and proprietary datasets. Our empirical findings indicate that while approaches based on these representations have yet to reach the level of experimental reproducibility, our proposed model nevertheless offers significant improvements over models currently used in industrial workflows.

485 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A supervised learning approach to predict the products of organic reactions given their reactants, reagents, and solvent(s) is presented.
Abstract: We present a supervised learning approach to predict the products of organic reactions given their reactants, reagents, and solvent(s). The prediction task is factored into two stages comparable to manual expert approaches: considering possible sites of reactivity and evaluating their relative likelihoods. By training on hundreds of thousands of reaction precedents covering a broad range of reaction types from the patent literature, the neural model makes informed predictions of chemical reactivity. The model predicts the major product correctly over 85% of the time requiring around 100 ms per example, a significantly higher accuracy than achieved by previous machine learning approaches, and performs on par with expert chemists with years of formal training. We gain additional insight into predictions via the design of the neural model, revealing an understanding of chemistry qualitatively consistent with manual approaches.

435 citations


Cited by
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Proceedings Article
01 Oct 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the expressive power of GNNs to capture different graph structures is analyzed and a simple architecture for graph representation learning is proposed. But the results characterize the discriminative power of popular GNN variants and show that they cannot learn to distinguish certain simple graph structures.
Abstract: Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are an effective framework for representation learning of graphs. GNNs follow a neighborhood aggregation scheme, where the representation vector of a node is computed by recursively aggregating and transforming representation vectors of its neighboring nodes. Many GNN variants have been proposed and have achieved state-of-the-art results on both node and graph classification tasks. However, despite GNNs revolutionizing graph representation learning, there is limited understanding of their representational properties and limitations. Here, we present a theoretical framework for analyzing the expressive power of GNNs to capture different graph structures. Our results characterize the discriminative power of popular GNN variants, such as Graph Convolutional Networks and GraphSAGE, and show that they cannot learn to distinguish certain simple graph structures. We then develop a simple architecture that is provably the most expressive among the class of GNNs and is as powerful as the Weisfeiler-Lehman graph isomorphism test. We empirically validate our theoretical findings on a number of graph classification benchmarks, and demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance.

1,887 citations

Proceedings Article
29 Apr 2018
TL;DR: This paper designs a localized graph convolution model and shows its connection with two graph kernels, and designs a novel SortPooling layer which sorts graph vertices in a consistent order so that traditional neural networks can be trained on the graphs.
Abstract: Neural networks are typically designed to deal with data in tensor forms. In this paper, we propose a novel neural network architecture accepting graphs of arbitrary structure. Given a dataset containing graphs in the form of (G,y) where G is a graph and y is its class, we aim to develop neural networks that read the graphs directly and learn a classification function. There are two main challenges: 1) how to extract useful features characterizing the rich information encoded in a graph for classification purpose, and 2) how to sequentially read a graph in a meaningful and consistent order. To address the first challenge, we design a localized graph convolution model and show its connection with two graph kernels. To address the second challenge, we design a novel SortPooling layer which sorts graph vertices in a consistent order so that traditional neural networks can be trained on the graphs. Experiments on benchmark graph classification datasets demonstrate that the proposed architecture achieves highly competitive performance with state-of-the-art graph kernels and other graph neural network methods. Moreover, the architecture allows end-to-end gradient-based training with original graphs, without the need to first transform graphs into vectors.

1,198 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The OGB datasets are large-scale, encompass multiple important graph ML tasks, and cover a diverse range of domains, ranging from social and information networks to biological networks, molecular graphs, source code ASTs, and knowledge graphs, indicating fruitful opportunities for future research.
Abstract: We present the Open Graph Benchmark (OGB), a diverse set of challenging and realistic benchmark datasets to facilitate scalable, robust, and reproducible graph machine learning (ML) research. OGB datasets are large-scale, encompass multiple important graph ML tasks, and cover a diverse range of domains, ranging from social and information networks to biological networks, molecular graphs, source code ASTs, and knowledge graphs. For each dataset, we provide a unified evaluation protocol using meaningful application-specific data splits and evaluation metrics. In addition to building the datasets, we also perform extensive benchmark experiments for each dataset. Our experiments suggest that OGB datasets present significant challenges of scalability to large-scale graphs and out-of-distribution generalization under realistic data splits, indicating fruitful opportunities for future research. Finally, OGB provides an automated end-to-end graph ML pipeline that simplifies and standardizes the process of graph data loading, experimental setup, and model evaluation. OGB will be regularly updated and welcomes inputs from the community. OGB datasets as well as data loaders, evaluation scripts, baseline code, and leaderboards are publicly available at this https URL .

1,097 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: DiffPool is proposed, a differentiable graph pooling module that can generate hierarchical representations of graphs and can be combined with various graph neural network architectures in an end-to-end fashion.
Abstract: Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have revolutionized the field of graph representation learning through effectively learned node embeddings, and achieved state-of-the-art results in tasks such as node classification and link prediction. However, current GNN methods are inherently flat and do not learn hierarchical representations of graphs---a limitation that is especially problematic for the task of graph classification, where the goal is to predict the label associated with an entire graph. Here we propose DiffPool, a differentiable graph pooling module that can generate hierarchical representations of graphs and can be combined with various graph neural network architectures in an end-to-end fashion. DiffPool learns a differentiable soft cluster assignment for nodes at each layer of a deep GNN, mapping nodes to a set of clusters, which then form the coarsened input for the next GNN layer. Our experimental results show that combining existing GNN methods with DiffPool yields an average improvement of 5-10% accuracy on graph classification benchmarks, compared to all existing pooling approaches, achieving a new state-of-the-art on four out of five benchmark data sets.

1,070 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Hongming Chen1, Ola Engkvist1, Yinhai Wang1, Marcus Olivecrona1, Thomas Blaschke1 
TL;DR: The first wave of applications of deep learning in pharmaceutical research has emerged in recent years, and its utility has gone beyond bioactivity predictions and has shown promise in addressing diverse problems in drug discovery.

1,068 citations