Green and Sustainable Chemistry
About: Green and Sustainable Chemistry is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Catalysis & Ionic liquid. It has an ISSN identifier of 2160-696X. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 716 publication(s) have been published receiving 10188 citation(s).
TL;DR: In this paper, the roles of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and IL-based solvent systems as proposed alternative for conventional organic solvents are described and the physicochemical properties that are reviewed are thermal properties, conductivity and chemical reactivity.
Abstract: Since environmental pollution caused by chemical and energy industries has increased for several decades, there is a social expectation that scientists and engineers try to design sustainable chemical processes, to generate less hazardous materials and more environmentally friendly sources of energy production. In this review the roles of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and IL based solvent systems as proposed alternative for conventional organic solvents are described. Since there are already many reviews on benefits of ILs, after a very brief review of ILs we focus mostly on aspects that are not covered in other reviews, in particular the known limits of these solvents. In addition, different methods to measure the physicochemical properties relevant to their use in energy storage applications such as fuel cells and batteries are introduced. The physicochemical properties that are reviewed are thermal properties, conductivity and chemical reactivity. The focus of the review is on the literature after 2008, with the exception of some important historic articles on ILs.
TL;DR: The bio-molecules from various plant components and microbial species have been used as potential agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as discussed by the authors, and more than 100 different biological sources for synthesizing AgNPs are reported in the past decade by various authors.
Abstract: The bio-molecules from various plant components and microbial species have been used as potential agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In spite of a wide range of bio-molecules assisting in the process, synthesizing stable and widely applicable AgNPs by many researchers still poses a considerable challenge to the researchers. The biological agents for synthesizing AgNPs cover compounds produced naturally in microbes and plants. More than 100 different biological sources for synthesizing AgNPs are reported in the past decade by various authors. Reaction parameters under which the AgNPs were being synthesized hold prominent impact on their size, shape and application. Available published information on AgNPs synthesis, effects of various parameters, characterization techniques, properties and their application are summarised and critically discussed in this review.
TL;DR: In this article, the synthesis of green-silver nanoparticles using extracts of Ananas comosus reducing aqueous silver nitrate has been demonstrated using extracts from pineapple juice, which is a green chemistry approach that intercom nects nanotechnology and plant biotechnology.
Abstract: The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective and environmental friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that intercom nects nanotechnology and plant biotechnology. In the present study, synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or (Green-Silver) has been demonstrated using extracts of Ananas comosus reducing aqueous silver nitrate. The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) Spectrometer, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), Selected Area Diffraction Pattern (SAED) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 12 nm. The XRD pattern showed the characteristic Bragg peaks of (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets of the face center cubic (fcc) silver nanoparticles and confirmed that these nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. The different types of antioxidants presented in the pineapple juice synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each antioxidant is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The re- action process was simple for formation of silver nanoparticles and AgNPs presented in the aqueous medium were quite stable, even up to 4 months of incubation. This work proved the capability of using biomaterial towards the synthesis of silver nanoparticle, by adopting the principles of green chemistry.
TL;DR: Several recently developed approaches on how to overcome current challenges on the use of ionic liquids in the biomass conversion were highlighted and the potential applications for the production of novel biomass-derived chemicals and materials were discussed.
Abstract: Ionic liquids are effective solvents/media for the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. The unique properties of ionic liquids enable them to effectively dissolve and/or convert the biomass into various types of products. This review aims to cover the latest progress achieved in applications of ionic liquids on biomass conversion and analysis. Specifically, several recently developed approaches on how to overcome current challenges on the use of ionic liquids in the biomass conversion were highlighted. Recent studies addressing the potential applications of ionic liquids for the production of novel biomass-derived chemicals and materials were also discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the optimum process conditions (treatment times, current densities, and initial pH) and removal efficiencies (mostly high) achieved for the EC applications discussed.
Abstract: During the last two decades, and particularly during the last few years, the environmental sector has shown a largely growing interest in the treatment of different types of water and wastewater by electrocoagulation (EC). The aim of this work was to review studies, conducted mainly during 2008-2011, on the wide and versatile range of feasible EC applications employed in the purification of different types of water and wastewater. The EC applications discussed here were divided into 7 following categories: tannery, textile and colored wastewater; pulp and paper industry wastewater; oily wastewater; food industry wastewater; other types of industrial wastewater; surface water as well as model water and wastewater containing heavy metals, nutrients, cyanide and other elements and ions. In addition, this paper presents an overview of the optimum process conditions (treatment times, current densities, and initial pH) and removal efficiencies (mostly high) achieved for the EC applications discussed. In the vast majority of the studies discussed in this review, the aforementioned values were found to be in the range of 5 - 60 min (typically less than 30 min), 10 - 150 A/m 2 and near neutral pH, respectively. Both operating costs and electrical energy consumption values were found to vary greatly depending on the type of solution being treated, being between 0.0047 - 6.74 €/m 3 and 0.002 - 58.0 kWh/m 3 , but in general they were rather low (typically around 0.1 - 1.0 €/m 3 and 0.4 - 4.0 kWh/m 3
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