Journal of Helminthology
About: Journal of Helminthology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Schistosoma mansoni. It has an ISSN identifier of 0022-149X. Over the lifetime, 4215 publication(s) have been published receiving 58620 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Sep 2005-Journal of Helminthology
TL;DR: A global analysis of the distribution of human cases shows that the expected correlation between animal and human fascioliasis only appears at a basic level, and well-known epidemiological patterns of fasciliasis may not always explain the transmission characteristics in any given area and control measures should consider the results of ecoepidemiological studies undertaken in the zones concerned.
Abstract: Considered a secondary zoonotic disease until the mid-1990s, human fascioliasis is at present emerging or re-emerging in many countries, including increases of prevalence and intensity and geographical expansion. Research in recent years has justified the inclusion of fascioliasis in the list of important human parasitic diseases. At present, fascioliasis is a vector-borne disease presenting the widest known latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Fasciola hepatica has succeeded in expanding from its European original geographical area to colonize five continents, despite theoretical restrictions related to its biology and in turn dependent upon environmental and human activities. Among the different epidemiological situations, human hypo- to hyperendemic areas, including epidemics, are noteworthy. A global analysis of the distribution of human cases shows that the expected correlation between animal and human fascioliasis only appears at a basic level. Areas presenting very high human prevalences and intensities, especially in children and females, have been recently described. In hypo- to hyperendemic areas of Central and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, human fascioliasis presents a range of epidemiological characteristics related to a wide diversity of environments. Thus far well-known epidemiological patterns of fascioliasis may not always explain the transmission characteristics in any given area and control measures should consider the results of ecoepidemiological studies undertaken in the zones concerned.
01 Dec 1940-Journal of Helminthology
TL;DR: A method of recovering cysts from soils of not more than 10% water content and the yield was found to contain a slightly lower percentage of full cysts than that obtained by dry flotation but this drop was not considered sufficiently great to justify the drying of soil in large quantities.
Abstract: A method of recovering cysts from soils of not more than 10% water content is described. The method is continuous and the yield from it is only slightly lower than that from the dry flotation of soil. The yield was found to contain a slightly lower percentage of full cysts than that obtained by dry flotation but this drop was not considered sufficiently great to justify the drying of soil in large quantities. Quantities of soil in the neighbourhood of 1 cwt. can be handled continuously in a matter of two hours.
01 Sep 2005-Journal of Helminthology
TL;DR: Current results obtained on the epidemiological, pathological and clinical aspects, as well as control measures in endemic areas of clonorchiasis are presented.
Abstract: Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese or oriental liver fluke, is an important human parasite and is widely distributed in southern Korea, China (including Taiwan), Japan, northern Vietnam and the far eastern part of Russia. Clonorchiasis occurs in all parts of the world where there are Asian immigrants from endemic areas. The human and animal reservoir hosts (dogs, pigs, cats and rats) acquire the infection from the ingestion of raw fish containing infectious metacercariae. The first intermediate snail hosts are mainly species of Parafossarulus and Bithynia. Numerous species of freshwater fish serve as the second intermediate hosts of C. sinensis. Extensive studies of clonorchiasis during several decades in Japan, Korea, China and other countries have shown much progress in proving its morphological features including ultrastructure, biology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and chemotherapy. The present review deals with mainly current results obtained on the epidemiological, pathological and clinical aspects, as well as control measures in endemic areas. As for the complications of clonorchiasis, formation of calculi in the intrahepatic biliary passages is one of the most characteristic pathological features. It is sometimes accompanied by suppurative cholangitis, cholecystitis, cholangiohepatitis and ultimately can cause cholangiocarcinoma. Experimental results on the relationship to the occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma are presented. Clinical diagnosis by radiological findings including cholangiography, sonography and computerized tomography as well as magnetic resonance imaging for biliary or pancreatic ducts are outlined. Current studies on immunology and molecular biology of C. sinensis were introduced. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for clonorchiasis. The most effective regimen is 25 mg kg(-1) three times daily (total dose, 75 mg kg(-1)) administered orally at 5- to 6-h intervals over a single day. Prevention and control measures are also discussed.
01 Jun 2006-Journal of Helminthology
TL;DR: It can be concluded that the adaptation of certain populations of the novel host to the alien parasite takes several decades to a century or more, and two helminths, the liver fluke and the swimbladder nematode, are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change.
Abstract: Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several introduced areas, F. hepatica co-occurs with native or exotic populations of the congeneric F. gigantica, with thus far unknown implications. Over the fluke's extended range, in addition to domestic stock animals, wild native or naturalized mammals can also serve as final hosts. Indigenous and displaced populations of F. hepatica, however, have not yet been studied comparatively from an evolutionary perspective. A. crassus, from the Far East, has invaded three continents, without the previous naturalization of its natural host Anguilla japonica, by switching to the respective indigenous eel species. Local entomostrac crustaceans serve as susceptible intermediate hosts. The novel final hosts turned out to be naive in respect to the introduced nematode with far reaching consequences for the parasite's morphology (size), abundance and pathogenicity. Comparative infection experiments with Japanese and European eels yielded many differences in the hosts' immune defence, mirroring coevolution versus an abrupt host switch associated with the introduction of the helminth. In other associations of native hosts and invasive parasites, the elevated pathogenicity of the parasite seems to result from other deficiencies such as a lack of anti-parasitic behaviour of the naive host compared to the donor host which displays distinct behavioural patterns, keeping the abundance of the parasite low. From the small amount of available literature, it can be concluded that the adaptation of certain populations of the novel host to the alien parasite takes several decades to a century or more. Summarizing all we know about hosts and parasites as aliens, tentative patterns and principles can be figured out, but individual case studies teach us that generalizations should be avoided.
01 Dec 2001-Journal of Helminthology
TL;DR: Clinical rationales for the specific treatment of VLM and OLM, preventive treatment needs to be considered bearing in mind the increasing risk of larvae localizing in the brain during the course of an infection.
Abstract: A new scheme of clarifying clinical forms of toxocariasis is proposed to include: (i) systemic forms: classical VLM and incomplete VLM; (ii) compartmentalized forms: ocular and neurological toxocariasis; (iii) covert toxocariasis; and (iv) asymptomatic toxocariasis. The following markers are helpful in defining clinical forms namely, patient characteristics and history, clinical symptoms and signs, positive serology, eosinophilia and increased levels of IgE. Amongst the available drugs albendazole is the most commonly used, although other benzimidazole compounds have a similar efficacy. The recommended dose of albendazole is 15 mg kg(-1) body weight daily for 5 days and in some cases with VLM syndrome the treatment needs to be repeated. An evaluation of treatment efficacy can be made by observing a rise in eosinophilia within a week followed by any improvement in clinical symptoms and signs, lower eosinophilia and serological tests taken over a period of at least 4 weeks. In addition to clinical rationales for the specific treatment of VLM and OLM, preventive treatment needs to be considered bearing in mind the increasing risk of larvae localizing in the brain during the course of an infection. To reduce migration of Toxocara larvae a single course of albendazole is suggested in cases where eosinophilia and serology are at least moderately positive.
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