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The Journal of Eating Disorders

About: The Journal of Eating Disorders is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Eating disorders & Anorexia nervosa (differential diagnoses). Over the lifetime, 652 publication(s) have been published receiving 8087 citation(s). more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/2050-2974-1-13
Janet Treasure1, Ulrike Schmidt1Institutions (1)
Abstract: To describe the evidence base relating to the Cognitive-Interpersonal Maintenance Model for anorexia nervosa (AN). A Cognitive-Interpersonal Maintenance Model maintenance model for anorexia nervosa was described in 2006. This model proposed that cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements acted together to both cause and maintain eating disorders. A review of the empirical literature relating to the key constructs of the model (cognitive, socio-emotional, interpersonal) risk and maintaining factors for anorexia nervosa was conducted. Set shifting and weak central coherence (associated with obsessive compulsive traits) have been widely studied. There is some evidence to suggest that a strong eye for detail and weak set shifting are inherited vulnerabilities to AN. Set shifting and global integration are impaired in the ill state and contribute to weak central coherence. In addition, there are wide-ranging impairments in socio-emotional processing including: an automatic bias in attention towards critical and domineering faces and away from compassionate faces; impaired signalling of, interpretation and regulation of emotions. Difficulties in social cognition may in part be a consequence of starvation but inherited vulnerabilities may also contribute to these traits. The shared familial traits may accentuate family members’ tendency to react to the frustrating and frightening symptoms of AN with high expressed emotion (criticism, hostility, overprotection), and inadvertently perpetuate the problem. The cognitive interpersonal model is supported by accumulating evidence. The model is complex in that cognitive and socio-emotional factors both predispose to the illness and are exaggerated in the ill state. Furthermore, some of the traits are inherited vulnerabilities and are present in family members. The clinical formulations from the model are described as are new possibilities for targeted treatment. more

399 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/2050-2974-1-21
Abstract: Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. more

Topics: Alexithymia (73%), Eating disorder not otherwise specified (69%), Eating disorders (68%) more

164 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40337-014-0021-3
Abstract: Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a “new” diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients with eating disorders between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients with ARFID were compared to those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other specified feeding or eating disorder/unspecified feeding or eating disorder with respect to demographics, anthropometrics, clinical symptoms, and psychometric testing, using Chi-square, ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis. 39/173 (22.5%) patients met ARFID criteria. The ARFID group was younger than the non-ARFID group and had a greater proportion of males. Similar degrees of weight loss and malnutrition were found between groups. Patients with ARFID reported greater fears of vomiting and/or choking and food texture issues than those with other eating disorders, as well as greater dependency on nutritional supplements at intake. Children’s Eating Attitudes Test scores were lower for children with than without ARFID. A higher comorbidity of anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorder, and learning disorders, and a lower comorbidity of depression, were found in those with ARFID. This study demonstrates that there are significant demographic and clinical characteristics that differentiate children with ARFID from those with other eating disorders in a day treatment program, and helps substantiate the recognition of ARFID as a distinct eating disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5. more

164 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40337-015-0070-2
Abstract: Once concentrated among adolescent Caucasian females in high-income Western countries, today, eating disorders (EDs) are truly global. Building upon previous work describing the rise of EDs among cultures in transition, we contextualize the emergence of EDs in Asia by locating this development within the broader discourse about the processes of change that have radically transformed Asian societies over the last three decades. By identifying where EDs are emerging in the region, and by examining their particular expression, our aim is to explicate a fuller story of the relationship between culture and eating disorders. Much of the discussion of EDs in non-Western societies is predicated upon the assumption that an increase in EDs is the by-product of “Westernization”, the term used to describe the process by which increased cultural contact with the West results in the transmission of so-called ‘Western’ ideas and cultural norms to a non-Western culture. While the Westernization literature represents a historical anchor in our understanding of EDs in Asia, we propose that this analysis is incomplete in that societal change in the form of industrialization and urbanization occurring independently from, or in tandem with, “Western” influence are critical factors contributing to the rise of EDs in Asia. Further, our review of eating disorders in Asia suggests that an understanding of the diversity and distinctiveness of the individual countries and cultures that comprise ‘Asia’ is crucial to understanding the emergence and rise of EDs across this vast region, suggesting that eating disorders are not culture-bound or culture-specific, but rather culture-reactive. Taking into account both the historical influence of Western culture and the more contemporary effects of Asian industrialization and urbanization, key distinctions among respective Asian cultures expands our understanding of the development and expression of EDs globally. more

Topics: Westernization (56%)

160 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40337-015-0056-0
Abstract: New DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders were published in 2013. Adolescent cohort studies in the Australian community indicate that the point prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders may be as high as 15% in females and 3% in males. The goal of the current study was to determine the 3-month prevalence of DSM-5 disorders in a representative sample of Australian older adolescents and adults. A secondary aim was to explore the demographic correlates of these disorders, specifically, age, gender, income, and educational attainment and presence of obesity. We conducted and merged sequential cross-sectional population survey data of adults (aged over 15 years) collected in 2008 and in 2009 (n = 6041). Demographic information and the occurrence of regular (at least weekly over the past 3 months) objective and subjective binge eating, extreme dietary restriction, purging behaviors, and overvaluation of weight and/or shape, were assessed. The 3-month prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were both under 1% whereas the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and sub-threshold BED were 5.6-6.9%. The prevalence of BED including overvaluation of weight/shape was 3%. Other specified and unspecified eating disorders including purging disorder were less common, under 1% to 1.4%. While people with eating disorders were generally younger than others, the mean age was in the fourth decade for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and in the fourth or fifth decade for all other disorders. Most people with eating disorders had similar household incomes and educational attainments to the general population. People with bulimia nervosa, BED and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa were more likely to be obese than people without an eating disorder. The findings support the expanded demographic distribution of eating disorders. There is a relatively high prevalence of BED compared to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. As it is in BED, obesity is a very common co-morbidity in bulimia nervosa. more

Topics: Bulimia nervosa (76%), Eating disorders (74%), Binge-eating disorder (74%) more

145 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Stephen Touyz

58 papers, 901 citations

Phillipa Hay

47 papers, 880 citations

Øyvind Rø

18 papers, 267 citations

Ulrike Schmidt

13 papers, 83 citations

Daniel Le Grange

12 papers, 148 citations

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