scispace - formally typeset
Journal ArticleDOI

Circadian distribution of sleep phases after major abdominal surgery

01 Jan 2008-BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 100, Iss: 1, pp 45-49

...read more


Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: It is concluded that the pathogenesis of POCD is multifactorial and future studies should focus on evaluating the role of postoperative sleep disturbances, inflammatory stress responses, pain and environmental factors.
Abstract: There is evidence that postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant problem after major surgery, but the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. The interpretation of available studies is difficult due to differences in neuropsychological test batteries as well as the lack of appropriate controls. Furthermore, there are no internationally accepted criteria for defining POCD. This article aims to provide an update of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of POCD with a focus on perioperative pathophysiology and possible benefits achieved from an enhanced postoperative recovery using a fast-track methodology. It is concluded that the pathogenesis of POCD is multifactorial and future studies should focus on evaluating the role of postoperative sleep disturbances, inflammatory stress responses, pain and environmental factors. Potential prophylactic intervention may include minimal invasive surgery, multi-modal non-opioid pain management and pharmacological manipulation of the inflammatory response and sleep architecture.

247 citations


Cites background from "Circadian distribution of sleep pha..."

  • [...]

  • [...]

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: Combination of an obstructive sleep apnea screening tool preoperatively (SACS) and recurrent PACU respiratory events was associated with a higher oxygen desaturation index and postoperative respiratory complications.
Abstract: Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at risk for perioperative morbidity. The authors used a screening prediction model for obstructive sleep apnea to generate a sleep apnea clinical score (SACS) that identified patients at high or low risk for obstructive sleep apnea. This was combined with postanesthesia care unit (PACU) monitoring with the aim of identifying patients at high risk of postoperative oxygen desaturation and respiratory complications. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, surgical patients with a hospital stay longer than 48 h who consented were enrolled. The SACS (high or low risk) was calculated; all patients were monitored in the PACU for recurrent episodes of bradypnea, apnea, desaturations, and pain‐sedation mismatch. All patients underwent pulse oximetry postoperatively; complications were documented. Chi-square, two-sample t test, and logistic regression were used for analysis. The oxygen desaturation index (number of desaturations per hour) was calculated. Oxygen desaturation index and incidence of postoperative cardiorespiratory complications were primary endpoints. Results: Six hundred ninety-three patients were enrolled. From multivariable logistic regression analysis, the likelihood of a postoperative oxygen desaturation index greater than 10 was increased with a high SACS (odds ratio 1.9, P < 0.001) and recurrent PACU events (odds ratio 1.5, P 0.036). Postoperative respiratory events were also associated with a high SACS (odds ratio 3.5, P < 0.001) and recurrent PACU events (odds ratio 21.0, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Combination of an obstructive sleep apnea screening tool preoperatively (SACS) and recurrent PACU respiratory events was associated with a higher oxygen desaturation index and postoperative respiratory complications. A two-phase process to identify patients at higher risk for perioperative respiratory desaturations and complications may be useful to stratify and manage surgical patients postoperatively. PATIENTS with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at risk for perioperative morbidity, and many patients who present for surgical procedures may have undiagnosed OSA. 1–5 In 1993, approximately 4% of men and 2% of

211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: One half of unanticipated tracheal intubations in a period of 30 days occurred within the first 3 days after nonemergent, noncardiac surgery and were independently associated with a 9-fold increase in mortality.
Abstract: Background Although the risk of hypoxemia is greatest during the first 72 h after surgery, little is known of the incidence of respiratory failure during this period. The authors studied the incidence and predictors of unanticipated early postoperative intubation (within 3 days) and its role in mortality. Methods A total of 222,094 adult patients undergoing nonemergent, noncardiac surgery in the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database were studied to determine the incidence and independent predictors of unanticipated early postoperative intubation. A risk-class model was developed and subsequently validated in 109,636 patients. Results Overall, 2,828 of 5,725 (49.4%) unanticipated tracheal intubations in a period of 30 days occurred within the first 3 days after surgery. The incidence of unanticipated early postoperative intubation was 0.83-0.9% in the derivation and validation cohorts. Independent predictors of unanticipated early postoperative intubation included current ethanol use, current smoker, dyspnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus needing insulin therapy, active congestive heart failure, hypertension requiring medication, abnormal liver function, cancer, prolonged hospitalization, recent weight loss, body mass index less than 18.5 or ≥ 40 kg/m, medium-risk surgery, high-risk surgery, very-high-risk surgery, and sepsis. Unanticipated early postoperative intubation was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality, with an adjusted odds ratio of 9.2. Higher risk classes were associated with increasing incidence of unanticipated early postoperative intubation and death. Conclusions One half of unanticipated tracheal intubations in a period of 30 days occurred within the first 3 days after nonemergent, noncardiac surgery and were independently associated with a 9-fold increase in mortality. The authors present a validated perioperative risk class index for determining risk of unanticipated early postoperative intubation.

131 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: Patients with a higher preoperative AHI were predicted to have a higher postoperatively AHI and slow wave sleep percentage was inversely associated with postoperative A HI and central apnea index.
Abstract: Introduction:The knowledge on the mechanism of the postoperative exacerbation of sleep-disordered breathing may direct the perioperative management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea The objective of this study is to investigate the factors associated with postoperative severity of sleep-diso

108 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

01 Jul 2009-Chest
TL;DR: This paper reviewed the literature describing sleep in ICU patients, including recent investigations in patients who require mechanical ventilation, factors that affect sleep in critically ill patients, and the potential mechanisms and clinical implications of disturbed sleep in the ICU setting with directions to consider for future investigations.
Abstract: Patients in the ICU are known to have severely disrupted sleep with disturbed circadian pattern, decreased nocturnal sleep time, abnormally increased stages 1 and 2 sleep, and reduced or absent deep sleep. Recent data reveal that a subpopulation of critically ill patients manifests unique EEG sleep patterns. The etiology of sleep disruption in the ICU includes the inherent nature of the environment, medications, ventilator-patient interaction, and the effect of acute illness. How sleep disruption contributes to outcomes in critically ill patients, such as recovery time and weaning from mechanical ventilation, is unknown. This article reviews the literature describing sleep in ICU patients, including recent investigations in patients who require mechanical ventilation, factors that affect sleep in critically ill patients, and the potential mechanisms and clinical implications of disturbed sleep in the ICU setting with directions to consider for future investigations.

106 citations


References
More filters
Book

[...]

01 Jan 1968

11,976 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: Techniques of recording, scoring, and doubtful records are carefully considered, and Recommendations for abbreviations, types of pictorial representation, order of polygraphic tracings are suggested.
Abstract: With the vast research interest in sleep and dreams that has developed in the past 15 years, there is increasing evidence of noncomparibility of scoring of nocturnal electroencephalograph-electroculograph records from different laboratories. In 1967 a special session on scoring criteria was held at the seventh annual meeting of the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep. Under the auspices of the UCLA Brain Information, an ad hoc committee composed of some of the most active current researchers was formed in 1967 to develop a terminology and scoring system for universal use. It is the results of the labors of this group that is now published under the imprimatur of the National Institutes of Health. The presentation is beautifully clear. Techniques of recording, scoring, and doubtful records are carefully considered. Recommendations for abbreviations, types of pictorial representation, order of polygraphic tracings are suggested.

7,774 citations

[...]

01 Jan 1968

3,001 citations

[...]

01 Jan 1968

2,438 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: REM sleep is associated with profound sympathetic activation in normal subjects, possibly linked to changes in muscle tone and the hemodynamic and sympathetic changes during REM sleep could play a part in triggering ischemic events in patients with vascular disease.
Abstract: Background The early hours of the morning after awakening are associated with an increased frequency of events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. The triggering mechanisms for these events are not clear. We investigated whether autonomic changes occurring during sleep, particularly rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, contribute to the initiation of such events. Methods We measured blood pressure, heart rate, and sympathetic-nerve activity (using microneurography, which provides direct measurements of efferent sympathetic-nerve activity related to muscle blood vessels) in eight normal subjects while they were awake and while in the five stages of sleep. Results The mean (±SE) amplitude of bursts of sympathetic-nerve activity and levels of blood pressure and heart rate declined significantly (P<0.001), from 100 ±9 percent, 90 ±4 mm Hg, and 64 ±2 beats per minute, respectively, during wakefulness to 41 ±9 percent, 80 ±4 mm Hg, and 59 ±2 beats per minute, respectively, during stage 4 of non-REM sl...

1,280 citations



Trending Questions (1)
How to sleep after epiretinal membrane surgery?

Patients have significantly increased REM sleep, LS, and reduced time awake during the daytime period after surgery compared with before surgery.