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Ajay Singh

Bio: Ajay Singh is an academic researcher from Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lymnaea acuminata & Catalysis. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 256 publications receiving 8464 citations. Previous affiliations of Ajay Singh include Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research & Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


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TL;DR: Recognition of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to oxidative stress has been proved an effective tool in alteration of any neuronal damage as well as free radical scavenging.
Abstract: Free radicals are common outcome of normal aerobic cellular metabolism. In-built antioxidant system of body plays its decisive role in prevention of any loss due to free radicals. However, imbalanced defense mechanism of antioxidants, overproduction or incorporation of free radicals from environment to living system leads to serious penalty leading to neuro-degeneration. Neural cells suffer functional or sensory loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Apart from several other environmental or genetic factors, oxidative stress (OS) leading to free radical attack on neural cells contributes calamitous role to neuro-degeneration. Though, oxygen is imperative for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation end into a range of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and many other neural disorders. Toxicity of free radicals contributes to proteins and DNA injury, inflammation, tissue damage and subsequent cellular apoptosis. Antioxidants are now being looked upon as persuasive therapeutic against solemn neuronal loss, as they have capability to combat by neutralizing free radicals. Diet is major source of antioxidants, as well as medicinal herbs are catching attention to be commercial source of antioxidants at present. Recognition of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to oxidative stress has been proved an effective tool in alteration of any neuronal damage as well as free radical scavenging. Antioxidants have a wide scope to sequester metal ions involved in neuronal plaque formation to prevent oxidative stress. In addition, antioxidant therapy is vital in scavenging free radicals and ROS preventing neuronal degeneration in post-oxidative stress scenario.

2,874 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Sep 2011-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.
Abstract: Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological features. The quantitative information, provided by this study about the relation between surface nanoscale morphology and bacterial adhesion points towards the rational design of implant surfaces that control or inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

244 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The promises and challenges of employing bioengineered bacteria in drug delivery systems are reviewed, the biohybrid design concept is introduced as a new additional paradigm in bacteria-based drug delivery and the design of unique, complex therapeutic functions are introduced.

242 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This contribution reviews the latest advances in silicon and BP-based biomedical nanomaterials for disease diagnosis and therapy and their common feature characteristics as biodegradable biocompatible elemental semiconductors.

235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review focused on iron overload and oxidative stress as surrounding cause that leads to immunomodulation in chronic multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, as a feature common with other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is primarily an autoimmune disorder of unknown origin. This review focuses iron overload and oxidative stress as surrounding cause that leads to immunomodulation in chronic MS. Iron overload has been demonstrated in MS lesions, as a feature common with other neurodegenerative disorders. However, the recent description of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) associated to MS, with significant anomalies in cerebral venous outflow hemodynamics, permit to propose a parallel with chronic venous disorders (CVDs) in the mechanism of iron deposition. Abnormal cerebral venous reflux is peculiar to MS, and was not found in a miscellaneous of patients affected by other neurodegenerative disorders characterized by iron stores, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Several recently published studies support the hypothesis that MS progresses along the venous vasculature. The peculiarity of CCSVI-related cerebral venous blood flow disturbances, together with the histology of the perivenous spaces and recent findings from advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques, support the hypothesis that iron deposits in MS are a consequence of altered cerebral venous return and chronic insufficient venous drainage.

185 citations


Cited by
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08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1988-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,929 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analysis of the chiral stationary phase transition of Na6(CO3)(SO4)2, a major component of the response of the immune system to Na2CO3.
Abstract: Ju Mei,†,‡,∥ Nelson L. C. Leung,†,‡,∥ Ryan T. K. Kwok,†,‡ Jacky W. Y. Lam,†,‡ and Ben Zhong Tang*,†,‡,§ †HKUST-Shenzhen Research Institute, Hi-Tech Park, Nanshan, Shenzhen 518057, China ‡Department of Chemistry, HKUST Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Molecular Functional Materials, Division of Biomedical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Guangdong Innovative Research Team, SCUT-HKUST Joint Research Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China

5,658 citations

01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future.
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

4,408 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1941-Nature
TL;DR: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, by Prof. Louis Goodman and Prof. Alfred Gilman, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941, p.
Abstract: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics A Textbook of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics for Physicians and Medical Students. By Prof. Louis Goodman and Prof. Alfred Gilman. Pp. xiii + 1383. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941.) 50s. net.

2,686 citations