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Aldenor Gomes Santos

Bio: Aldenor Gomes Santos is a academic researcher at Federal University of Bahia who has co-authored 11 publication(s) receiving 2606 citation(s). The author has an hindex of 6. The author has done significant research in the topic(s): Particulates & Pollution.

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Topics: Particulates, Pollution, Air pollution ...read more
Papers
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-018-37186-2
09 Jan 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are known due to their mutagenic activity. Among them, 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) are considered as two of the most potent mutagens found in atmospheric particles. In the present study 2-NBA, 3-NBA and selected PAHs and Nitro-PAHs were determined in fine particle samples (PM 2.5) collected in a bus station and an outdoor site. The fuel used by buses was a diesel-biodiesel (96:4) blend and light-duty vehicles run with any ethanol-to-gasoline proportion. The concentrations of 2-NBA and 3-NBA were, on average, under 14.8 µg g−1 and 4.39 µg g−1, respectively. In order to access the main sources and formation routes of these compounds, we performed ternary correlations and multivariate statistical analyses. The main sources for the studied compounds in the bus station were diesel/biodiesel exhaust followed by floor resuspension. In the coastal site, vehicular emission, photochemical formation and wood combustion were the main sources for 2-NBA and 3-NBA as well as the other PACs. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) were calculated for both places, which presented low values, showing low cancer risk incidence although the ILCR values for the bus station were around 2.5 times higher than the ILCR from the coastal site.

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2,458 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5194/ACP-17-11943-2017
Abstract: . Sao Paulo in Brazil has relatively relaxed regulations for ambient air pollution standards and often experiences high air pollution levels due to emissions of particulate pollutants from local sources and long-range transport of air masses impacted by biomass burning. In order to evaluate the sources of particulate air pollution and related health risks, a year-round sampling was done at the University of Sao Paulo campus (20 m a.g.l.), a green area near an important expressway. The sampling was performed for PM2. 5 ( ≤ 2. 5 µm) and PM10 ( ≤ 10 µm) in 2014 through intensive (everyday sampling in wintertime) and extensive campaigns (once a week for the whole year) with 24 h of sampling. This year was characterized by having lower average precipitation compared to meteorological data, and high-pollution episodes were observed all year round, with a significant increase in pollution level in the intensive campaign, which was performed during wintertime. Different chemical constituents, such as carbonaceous species, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivatives, water-soluble ions, and biomass burning tracers were identified in order to evaluate health risks and to apportion sources. The species such as PAHs, inorganic and organic ions, and monosaccharides were determined using chromatographic techniques and carbonaceous species using thermal-optical analysis. Trace elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The risks associated with particulate matter exposure based on PAH concentrations were also assessed, along with indexes such as the benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPE) and lung cancer risk (LCR). High BaPE and LCR were observed in most of the samples, rising to critical values in the wintertime. Also, biomass burning tracers and PAHs were higher in this season, while secondarily formed ions presented low variation throughout the year. Meanwhile, vehicular tracer species were also higher in the intensive campaign, suggesting the influence of lower dispersion conditions in that period. Source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization (PMF), which indicated five different factors: road dust, industrial emissions, vehicular exhaust, biomass burning and secondary processes. The results highlighted the contribution of vehicular emissions and the significant input from biomass combustion in wintertime, suggesting that most of the particulate matter is due to local sources, in addition to the influence of pre-harvest sugarcane burning.

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Topics: Particulates (55%), Pollution (54%), Air pollution (53%) ...read more

51 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHROMA.2016.01.018
Abstract: The method allowed simultaneous characterization of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and quinones in atmospheric particulate matter. This method employs a miniaturized micro-extraction step that uses 500 μL of an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mix and instrumental analysis by means of a high-resolution GC-MS. The method was validated using the SRM1649b NIST standard reference material as well as deuterated internal standards. The results are in good agreement with the certified values and show recoveries between 75% and 145%. Limit of detection (LOD) values for PAHs were found to be between 0.5 pg (benzo[a]pyrene) to 2.1 pg (dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), for nitro-PAHs ranged between 3.2 pg (1-nitrobenzo[e]pyrene) and 22.2 pg (3-nitrophenanthrene), and for quinones ranged between 11.5 pg (1,4-naphthoquinone) and 458 pg (9,10-phenanthraquinone). The validated method was applied to real PM10 samples collected on quartz fiber filters. Concentrations in the PM10 samples ranged from 0.06 to 15 ng m(-3) for PAHs, from

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Topics: Pyrene (51%)

40 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MICROC.2014.06.004
Abstract: Requirements as torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emitted compounds are highly influenced by the chemical composition of the fuel being burned. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the use of oxygenated fuels on emissions of NOx, CO, HC, CO2 and particle number and size distribution (11.5

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Topics: Diesel fuel (67%), Diesel engine (66%), Diesel exhaust (65%) ...read more

27 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2018.09.022
Abstract: Conventional methods for determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in sediments usually require large sample sizes (grams) and solvent volumes (at least 100 mL) through the employment of Soxhlet extraction, which is both time (hours) and energy consuming, among other disadvantages. We developed a new analytical protocol for the determination of PACs in sediments using microextraction, which requires small sample masses (25 mg), 500 μL of acetonitrile-dichloromethane mix and sonication for 23 min, followed by GC–MS analysis. The method was validated using the certified reference material SRM 1941b – NIST organic marine sediment, as well as internal deuterated standards. Seventeen PAHs, seven nitro-PAHs and one quinone were detected and quantified. The mean concentrations were 90.4 ng g−1 for PAHs, 179.2 ng g−1 for nitro-PAHs and 822.5 ng g−1 for quinones. The proposed method showed good sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy for the determination of PAC in sediments samples.

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11 Citations


Cited by
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-018-37186-2
09 Jan 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are known due to their mutagenic activity. Among them, 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) are considered as two of the most potent mutagens found in atmospheric particles. In the present study 2-NBA, 3-NBA and selected PAHs and Nitro-PAHs were determined in fine particle samples (PM 2.5) collected in a bus station and an outdoor site. The fuel used by buses was a diesel-biodiesel (96:4) blend and light-duty vehicles run with any ethanol-to-gasoline proportion. The concentrations of 2-NBA and 3-NBA were, on average, under 14.8 µg g−1 and 4.39 µg g−1, respectively. In order to access the main sources and formation routes of these compounds, we performed ternary correlations and multivariate statistical analyses. The main sources for the studied compounds in the bus station were diesel/biodiesel exhaust followed by floor resuspension. In the coastal site, vehicular emission, photochemical formation and wood combustion were the main sources for 2-NBA and 3-NBA as well as the other PACs. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) were calculated for both places, which presented low values, showing low cancer risk incidence although the ILCR values for the bus station were around 2.5 times higher than the ILCR from the coastal site.

...read more

2,458 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41562-020-0931-9
Abstract: While severe social-distancing measures have proven effective in slowing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, second-wave scenarios are likely to emerge as restrictions are lifted. Here we integrate anonymized, geolocalized mobility data with census and demographic data to build a detailed agent-based model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in the Boston metropolitan area. We find that a period of strict social distancing followed by a robust level of testing, contact-tracing and household quarantine could keep the disease within the capacity of the healthcare system while enabling the reopening of economic activities. Our results show that a response system based on enhanced testing and contact tracing can have a major role in relaxing social-distancing interventions in the absence of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

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323 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-020-71939-2
Stefania Vaga1, Sunjae Lee1, Boyang Ji2, Anna Andreasson3  +15 moreInstitutions (12)
11 Sep 2020-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Gut mucosal microbes evolved closest to the host, developing specialized local communities. There is, however, insufficient knowledge of these communities as most studies have employed sequencing technologies to investigate faecal microbiota only. This work used shotgun metagenomics of mucosal biopsies to explore the microbial communities' compositions of terminal ileum and large intestine in 5 healthy individuals. Functional annotations and genome-scale metabolic modelling of selected species were then employed to identify local functional enrichments. While faecal metagenomics provided a good approximation of the average gut mucosal microbiome composition, mucosal biopsies allowed detecting the subtle variations of local microbial communities. Given their significant enrichment in the mucosal microbiota, we highlight the roles of Bacteroides species and describe the antimicrobial resistance biogeography along the intestine. We also detail which species, at which locations, are involved with the tryptophan/indole pathway, whose malfunctioning has been linked to pathologies including inflammatory bowel disease. Our study thus provides invaluable resources for investigating mechanisms connecting gut microbiota and host pathophysiology.

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Topics: Gut flora (56%), Microbiome (55%), Metagenomics (51%)

253 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-019-55490-3
16 Dec 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Most knowledge on biodiversity derives from the study of charismatic macro-organisms, such as birds and trees. However, the diversity of micro-organisms constitutes the majority of all life forms on Earth. Here, we ask if the patterns of richness inferred for macro-organisms are similar for micro-organisms. For this, we barcoded samples of soil, litter and insects from four localities on a west-to-east transect across Amazonia. We quantified richness as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in those samples using three molecular markers. We then compared OTU richness with species richness of two relatively well-studied organism groups in Amazonia: trees and birds. We find that OTU richness shows a declining west-to-east diversity gradient that is in agreement with the species richness patterns documented here and previously for birds and trees. These results suggest that most taxonomic groups respond to the same overall diversity gradients at large spatial scales. However, our results show a different pattern of richness in relation to habitat types, suggesting that the idiosyncrasies of each taxonomic group and peculiarities of the local environment frequently override large-scale diversity gradients. Our findings caution against using the diversity distribution of one taxonomic group as an indication of patterns of richness across all groups.

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Topics: Species richness (65%), Biodiversity (55%), Taxonomic rank (52%)

180 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SREP14588
05 Oct 2015-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Scientific Reports 5: Article number: 984610.1038/srep09846; published online: April202015; updated: October052015

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169 Citations


Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 6

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20203
20193
20181
20172
20161
20141

Top Attributes

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

2 papers, 57 citations

Scientific Reports

2 papers, 2.4K citations

Marine Pollution Bulletin

1 papers, 11 citations

Microchemical Journal

1 papers, 27 citations

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