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Alper Demir

Bio: Alper Demir is an academic researcher from Koç University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Phase noise & Quantum noise. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 88 publications receiving 3503 citations. Previous affiliations of Alper Demir include University of California, Berkeley & Silver Spring Networks.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a solid foundation for phase noise that is valid for any oscillator, regardless of operating mechanism, and established novel results about the dynamics of stable nonlinear oscillators in the presence of perturbations, both deterministic and random.
Abstract: Phase noise is a topic of theoretical and practical interest in electronic circuits, as well as in other fields, such as optics. Although progress has been made in understanding the phenomenon, there still remain significant gaps, both in its fundamental theory and in numerical techniques for its characterization. In this paper, we develop a solid foundation for phase noise that is valid for any oscillator, regardless of operating mechanism. We establish novel results about the dynamics of stable nonlinear oscillators in the presence of perturbations, both deterministic and random. We obtain an exact nonlinear equation for phase error, which we solve without approximations for random perturbations. This leads us to a precise characterization of timing jitter and spectral dispersion, for computing of which we have developed efficient numerical methods. We demonstrate our techniques on a variety of practical electrical oscillators and obtain good matches with measurements, even at frequencies close to the carrier, where previous techniques break down. Our methods are more than three orders of magnitude faster than the brute-force Monte Carlo approach, which is the only previously available technique that can predict phase noise correctly.

1,226 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Alper Demir1
TL;DR: In this paper, a stochastic characterization of phase noise in oscillators due to colored noise sources is presented, and the resulting spectrum of the oscillator output with phase noise as characterized.
Abstract: Phase noise or timing jitter in oscillators is of major concern in wireless and optical communications, being a major contributor to the bit-error rate of communication systems, and creating synchronization problems in other clocked and sampled-data systems. This paper presents the theory and practical characterization of phase noise in oscillators due to colored, as opposed to white, noise sources. Shot and thermal noise sources in oscillators can be modeled as white-noise sources for all practical purposes. The characterization of phase noise in oscillators due to shot and thermal noise sources is covered by a recently developed theory of phase noise due to white-noise sources. The extension of this theory and the practical characterization techniques to noise sources in oscillators, which have a colored spectral density, e.g., 1/f noise, is crucial for practical applications. In this paper, we first derive a stochastic characterization of phase noise in oscillators due to colored-noise sources. This stochastic analysis is based on a novel nonlinear perturbation analysis for autonomous systems, and a nonlocal Fokker-Planck equation we derive. Then, we calculate the resulting spectrum of the oscillator output with phase noise as characterized. We also extend our results to the case when both white and colored-noise sources are present. Our treatment of phase noise due to colored-noise sources is general, i.e., it is not specific to a particular type of colored-noise source.

201 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Alper Demir1
TL;DR: A unified analysis of the relationships between time-domain jitter and various spectral characterizations of phase noise is presented and practical results on computing jitter from spectral phase noise characteristics for oscillators and PLLs with both white (thermal, shot) and 1/f noise are presented.
Abstract: Phase noise and timing jitter in oscillators and phase-locked loops (PLLs) are of major concern in wireless and optical communications. In this paper, a unified analysis of the relationships between time-domain jitter and various spectral characterizations of phase noise is first presented. Several notions of phase noise spectra are considered, in particular, the power-spectral density (PSD) of the excess phase noise, the PSD of the signal generated by a noisy oscillator/PLL, and the so-called single-sideband (SSB) phase noise spectrum. We investigate the origins of these phase noise spectra and discuss their mathematical soundness. A simple equation relating the variance of timing jitter to the phase noise spectrum is derived and its mathematical validity is analyzed. Then, practical results on computing jitter from spectral phase noise characteristics for oscillators and PLLs with both white (thermal, shot) and 1/f noise are presented. We are able to obtain analytical timing jitter results for free-running oscillators and first-order PLLs. A numerical procedure is used for higher order PLLs. The phase noise spectrum needed for computing jitter may be obtained from analytical phase noise models, oscillator or PLL noise analysis in a circuit simulator, or from actual measurements

177 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Nov 2004
TL;DR: A stochastic integral equation method for computing the mean value and the variance of capacitance of interconnects with random surface roughness, which avoids the time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations and the discretization of rough surfaces.
Abstract: In This work we describe a stochastic integral equation method for computing the mean value and the variance of capacitance of interconnects with random surface roughness. An ensemble average Green's function is combined with a matrix Neumann expansion to compute nominal capacitance and its variance. This method avoids the time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations and the discretization of rough surfaces. Numerical experiments show that the results of the new method agree very well with Monte Carlo simulation results.

172 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 May 1998
TL;DR: This paper develops a solid foundation for phase noise that is valid for any oscillator, regardless of operating mechanism, and obtains an exact, nonlinear equation for phase error, which leads to a precise characterisation of timing jitter and spectral dispersion.
Abstract: Phase noise is a topic of theoretical and practical interest in electronic circuits, as well as in other fields such as optics. Although progress has been made in understanding the phenomenon, there still remain significant gaps, both in its fundamental theory and in numerical techniques for its characterisation. In this paper, we develop a solid foundation for phase noise that is valid for any oscillator, regardless of operating mechanism. We establish novel results about the dynamics of stable nonlinear oscillators in the presence of perturbations, both deterministic and random. We obtain an exact, nonlinear equation for phase error, which we solve without approximations for random perturbations. This leads us to a precise characterisation of timing jitter and spectral dispersion, for computing which we develop efficient numerical methods. We demonstrate our techniques on practical electrical oscillators, and obtain good matches with measurements even at frequencies close to the carrier, where previous techniques break down.

155 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jun 1986-JAMA
TL;DR: The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or her own research.
Abstract: I have developed "tennis elbow" from lugging this book around the past four weeks, but it is worth the pain, the effort, and the aspirin. It is also worth the (relatively speaking) bargain price. Including appendixes, this book contains 894 pages of text. The entire panorama of the neural sciences is surveyed and examined, and it is comprehensive in its scope, from genomes to social behaviors. The editors explicitly state that the book is designed as "an introductory text for students of biology, behavior, and medicine," but it is hard to imagine any audience, interested in any fragment of neuroscience at any level of sophistication, that would not enjoy this book. The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or

7,563 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Van Kampen as mentioned in this paper provides an extensive graduate-level introduction which is clear, cautious, interesting and readable, and could be expected to become an essential part of the library of every physical scientist concerned with problems involving fluctuations and stochastic processes.
Abstract: N G van Kampen 1981 Amsterdam: North-Holland xiv + 419 pp price Dfl 180 This is a book which, at a lower price, could be expected to become an essential part of the library of every physical scientist concerned with problems involving fluctuations and stochastic processes, as well as those who just enjoy a beautifully written book. It provides an extensive graduate-level introduction which is clear, cautious, interesting and readable.

3,647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the rules of the ring, the ring population, and the need to get off the ring in order to measure the movement of a cyclic clock.
Abstract: 1980 Preface * 1999 Preface * 1999 Acknowledgements * Introduction * 1 Circular Logic * 2 Phase Singularities (Screwy Results of Circular Logic) * 3 The Rules of the Ring * 4 Ring Populations * 5 Getting Off the Ring * 6 Attracting Cycles and Isochrons * 7 Measuring the Trajectories of a Circadian Clock * 8 Populations of Attractor Cycle Oscillators * 9 Excitable Kinetics and Excitable Media * 10 The Varieties of Phaseless Experience: In Which the Geometrical Orderliness of Rhythmic Organization Breaks Down in Diverse Ways * 11 The Firefly Machine 12 Energy Metabolism in Cells * 13 The Malonic Acid Reagent ('Sodium Geometrate') * 14 Electrical Rhythmicity and Excitability in Cell Membranes * 15 The Aggregation of Slime Mold Amoebae * 16 Numerical Organizing Centers * 17 Electrical Singular Filaments in the Heart Wall * 18 Pattern Formation in the Fungi * 19 Circadian Rhythms in General * 20 The Circadian Clocks of Insect Eclosion * 21 The Flower of Kalanchoe * 22 The Cell Mitotic Cycle * 23 The Female Cycle * References * Index of Names * Index of Subjects

3,424 citations

Book
03 Jan 2018
TL;DR: This monograph summarizes many years of research insights in a clear and self-contained way and providest the reader with the necessary knowledge and mathematical toolsto carry out independent research in this area.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output MIMO is one of themost promising technologies for the next generation of wirelesscommunication networks because it has the potential to providegame-changing improvements in spectral efficiency SE and energyefficiency EE. This monograph summarizes many years ofresearch insights in a clear and self-contained way and providesthe reader with the necessary knowledge and mathematical toolsto carry out independent research in this area. Starting froma rigorous definition of Massive MIMO, the monograph coversthe important aspects of channel estimation, SE, EE, hardwareefficiency HE, and various practical deployment considerations.From the beginning, a very general, yet tractable, canonical systemmodel with spatial channel correlation is introduced. This modelis used to realistically assess the SE and EE, and is later extendedto also include the impact of hardware impairments. Owing tothis rigorous modeling approach, a lot of classic "wisdom" aboutMassive MIMO, based on too simplistic system models, is shownto be questionable.

1,352 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This handbook is a very useful handbook for engineers, especially those working in signal processing, and provides real data bootstrap applications to illustrate the theory covered in the earlier chapters.
Abstract: tions. Bootstrap has found many applications in engineering field, including artificial neural networks, biomedical engineering, environmental engineering, image processing, and radar and sonar signal processing. Basic concepts of the bootstrap are summarized in each section as a step-by-step algorithm for ease of implementation. Most of the applications are taken from the signal processing literature. The principles of the bootstrap are introduced in Chapter 2. Both the nonparametric and parametric bootstrap procedures are explained. Babu and Singh (1984) have demonstrated that in general, these two procedures behave similarly for pivotal (Studentized) statistics. The fact that the bootstrap is not the solution for all of the problems has been known to statistics community for a long time; however, this fact is rarely touched on in the manuscripts meant for practitioners. It was first observed by Babu (1984) that the bootstrap does not work in the infinite variance case. Bootstrap Techniques for Signal Processing explains the limitations of bootstrap method with an example. I especially liked the presentation style. The basic results are stated without proofs; however, the application of each result is presented as a simple step-by-step process, easy for nonstatisticians to follow. The bootstrap procedures, such as moving block bootstrap for dependent data, along with applications to autoregressive models and for estimation of power spectral density, are also presented in Chapter 2. Signal detection in the presence of noise is generally formulated as a testing of hypothesis problem. Chapter 3 introduces principles of bootstrap hypothesis testing. The topics are introduced with interesting real life examples. Flow charts, typical in engineering literature, are used to aid explanations of the bootstrap hypothesis testing procedures. The bootstrap leads to second-order correction due to pivoting; this improvement in the results due to pivoting is also explained. In the second part of Chapter 3, signal processing is treated as a regression problem. The performance of the bootstrap for matched filters as well as constant false-alarm rate matched filters is also illustrated. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on estimation problems. Chapter 4 introduces bootstrap methods used in model selection. Due to the inherent structure of the subject matter, this chapter may be difficult for nonstatisticians to follow. Chapter 5 is the most impressive chapter in the book, especially from the standpoint of statisticians. It provides real data bootstrap applications to illustrate the theory covered in the earlier chapters. These include applications to optimal sensor placement for knock detection and land-mine detection. The authors also provide a MATLAB toolbox comprising frequently used routines. Overall, this is a very useful handbook for engineers, especially those working in signal processing.

1,292 citations