Bio: Chow-Yen-Desmond Sim is an academic researcher from Feng Chia University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Antenna (radio) & Monopole antenna. The author has an hindex of 30, co-authored 206 publications receiving 3617 citations.
TL;DR: A hybrid antenna for future 4G/5G multiple input multiple output (MIMO) applications is proposed, and typically, experimental results such as S-parameter, antenna efficiency, radiation pattern, and envelope correlation coefficient are presented.
Abstract: A hybrid antenna is proposed for future 4G/5G multiple input multiple output (MIMO) applications. The proposed antenna is composed of two antenna modules, namely, 4G antenna module and 5G antenna module. The 4G antenna module is a two-antenna array capable of covering the GSM850/900/1800/1900, UMTS2100, and LTE2300/2500 operating bands, while the 5G antenna module is an eight-antenna array operating in the 3.5-GHz band capable of covering the $C$ -band (3400–3600 MHz), which could meet the demand of future 5G application. Compared with ideal uncorrelated antennas in an $8 \times 8$ MIMO system, the 5G antenna module has shown good ergodic channel capacity of $\sim 40$ b/s/Hz, which is only 6 b/s/Hz lower than ideal case. This multi-mode hybrid antenna is fabricated, and typically, experimental results such as S-parameter, antenna efficiency, radiation pattern, and envelope correlation coefficient are presented.
TL;DR: A dual-polarized hybrid eight-antenna array operating in the 2.6 GHz band for 5G communication multi-input multi-output (MIMO) operation in the smartphone is presented in this paper.
Abstract: A dual-polarized hybrid eight-antenna array operating in the 2.6-GHz band (2550–2650 MHz) for 5G communication multi-input multi-output (MIMO) operation in the smartphone is presented. The proposed hybrid antenna array elements are symmetrically placed along the long edges of the smartphone, and they are composed of two different four-antenna array types (C-shaped coupled-fed and L-shaped monopole slot) that exhibit orthogonal polarization. Therefore, coupling between the two antenna array types can be reduced, and the MIMO system performances are enhanced. A prototype of the proposed eight-antenna array is manufactured and measured. A good impedance matching (10 dB return loss or better), desirable cross-polarization discrimination (better than 15 dB), and an acceptable isolation (better than 12.5 dB) are obtained. Envelope correlation coefficient and channel capacity are also calculated to evaluate the MIMO performances of the proposed antenna array.
TL;DR: The design of a novel practical 28 GHz beam steering phased array antenna for future fifth generation mobile device applications is presented and the impacts of user’s hand effects are investigated.
Abstract: The design of a novel practical 28 GHz beam steering phased array antenna for future fifth generation mobile device applications is presented in this communication. The proposed array antenna has 16 cavity-backed slot antenna elements that are implemented via the metallic back casing of the mobile device, in which two eight-element phased arrays are built on the left- and right-side edges of the mobile device. Each eight-element phased array can yield beam steering at broadside and gain of >15 dBi can be achieved at boresight. The measured 10 dB return loss bandwidth of the proposed cavity-backed slot antenna element was approximately 27.5–30 GHz. In addition, the impacts of user’s hand effects are also investigated.
TL;DR: A novel balanced open-slot antenna is designed as an array antenna element, in which this antenna design can yield a balanced slot mode that can enhance the isolation between two adjacent input ports and further mitigates the coupling between antenna elements.
Abstract: A high-isolation eight-antenna multi-input multi-output (MIMO) array operating in the 3.5 GHz band (3.4–3.6 GHz) for future smartphones is proposed. Here, a novel balanced open-slot antenna is designed as an array antenna element, in which this antenna design can yield a balanced slot mode (with reduced ground effects) that can enhance the isolation between two adjacent input ports. Furthermore, by meticulously arranging the positions of the eight antenna elements, desirable polarization diversity can also be successfully achieved, which further mitigates the coupling between antenna elements. A prototype was manufactured to validate the simulation. A good impedance matching (return loss > 10 dB), high isolation (>17.5 dB), high total efficiency (>62%), and low envelope correlation coefficient (ECC, <0.05) were measured across the desired operation bandwidth. To verify the MIMO performance, ergodic channel capacity using the Kronecker channel model was calculated. The effects of hand phantom were also studied.
TL;DR: The results show that the proposed antenna array can still exhibit good radiation and MIMO performances when operating under data mode and read mode conditions.
Abstract: A 12-port antenna array operating in the long term evolution (LTE) band 42 (3400–3600 MHz), LTE band 43 (3600–3800 MHz), and LTE band 46 (5150–5925 MHz) for 5G massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) applications in mobile handsets is presented. The proposed MIMO antenna is composed of three different antenna element types, namely, inverted $\pi $ -shaped antenna, longer inverted L-shaped open slot antenna, and shorter inverted L-shaped open slot antenna. In total, eight antenna elements are used for the $8 \times 8$ MIMO in LTE bands 42/43, and six antenna elements are designed for the $6 \times 6$ MIMO in LTE band 46. The proposed antenna was simulated, and a prototype was fabricated and tested. The measured results show that the LTE bands 42/43/46 are satisfied with reflection coefficient better than −6 dB, isolation lower than −12 dB, and total efficiencies of higher than 40%. In addition to that, the proposed antenna array has also shown good MIMO performances with an envelope correlation coefficient lower than 0.15, and ergodic channel capacities higher than 34 and 26.5 b/s/Hz in the LTE bands 42/43 and LTE band 46, respectively. The hand phantom effects are also investigated, and the results show that the proposed antenna array can still exhibit good radiation and MIMO performances when operating under data mode and read mode conditions.
TL;DR: The effectiveness, current limitations, and required future research areas regarding the presented millimeter-wave 5G antenna design technologies are studied using mmWave 5G system benchmarks.
Abstract: For the first time to the best of our knowledge, this paper provides an overview of millimeter-wave (mmWave) 5G antennas for cellular handsets. Practical design considerations and solutions related to the integration of mmWave phased-array antennas with beam switching capabilities are investigated in detail. To experimentally examine the proposed methodologies, two types of mesh-grid phased-array antennas featuring reconfigurable horizontal and vertical polarizations are designed, fabricated, and measured at the 60 GHz spectrum. Afterward the antennas are integrated with the rest of the 60 GHz RF and digital architecture to create integrated mmWave antenna modules and implemented within fully operating cellular handsets under plausible user scenarios. The effectiveness, current limitations, and required future research areas regarding the presented mmWave 5G antenna design technologies are studied using mmWave 5G system benchmarks.
••11 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, the relevant millimeter-wave enabling technologies are reviewed: they include the recent developments on the system architectures of active beamforming arrays, beamforming integrated circuits, antennas for base stations and user terminals, system measurement and calibration, and channel characterization.
Abstract: Ever since the deployment of the first-generation of mobile telecommunications, wireless communication technology has evolved at a dramatically fast pace over the past four decades. The upcoming fifth-generation (5G) holds a great promise in providing an ultra-fast data rate, a very low latency, and a significantly improved spectral efficiency by exploiting the millimeter-wave spectrum for the first time in mobile communication infrastructures. In the years beyond 2030, newly emerged data-hungry applications and the greatly expanded wireless network will call for the sixth-generation (6G) communication that represents a significant upgrade from the 5G network – covering almost the entire surface of the earth and the near outer space. In both the 5G and future 6G networks, millimeter-wave technologies will play an important role in accomplishing the envisioned network performance and communication tasks. In this paper, the relevant millimeter-wave enabling technologies are reviewed: they include the recent developments on the system architectures of active beamforming arrays, beamforming integrated circuits, antennas for base stations and user terminals, system measurement and calibration, and channel characterization. The requirements of each part for future 6G communications are also briefly discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a broadband dual-polarized planar antenna is proposed for 2G/3G/LTE base stations, which is composed of two perpendicularly crossed bow-tie dipoles.
Abstract: A broadband dual-polarized planar antenna is proposed for 2G/3G/LTE base stations. The dual-polarized antenna is composed of two perpendicularly crossed bow-tie dipoles. Each bow-tie dipole is excited by a microstrip stub that is directly fed by a coaxial line, making the dual-polarized antenna full planar. Due to the coupling between two crossed bow-tie dipoles, a broad bandwidth is achieved. It is shown that the dual-polarized antenna has a bandwidth of 45% (1.7-2.7 GHz) for return loss >15 dB with an isolation of higher than 30 dB between two polarization input ports. The dual-polarized antenna has a half-power beam width (HPBW) of around 65 ° and an average gain of 8.5 dBi for slant ±45° polarizations. An 8-element dual-polarized planar antenna array is developed for base station applications. A bandwidth of 56% (1.63-2.9 GHz) is obtained for the antenna array. The antenna gain of the array is about 16 dBi and the HPBW is 65±8° for each polarization.
TL;DR: In this article, a two-antenna building block for forming the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array in the mobile device such as the smartphone is presented, which is formed by two gap-coupled loop antennas having asymmetric mirrored (AM) structures with respect to the system ground plane of the smartphone.
Abstract: A compact two-antenna building block for forming the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array in the mobile device such as the smartphone is presented. The building block has a planar structure of small size $7 \times 10$ mm2 (about $0.08\lambda \times 0.12\lambda$ ) for operating at 3.5-GHz band (3.4–3.6 GHz), which is the recently identified frequency spectrum in World Radiocommunication Conference 2015 for future broadband mobile services. The building block is formed by two gap-coupled loop antennas having asymmetrically mirrored (AM) structures with respect to the system ground plane of the smartphone. The two AM antennas show good isolation thereof and their envelope correlation coefficient is much less than 0.1 in the operating band, showing very good independence of the two antennas in their far-field radiation characteristics. By using four such building blocks, an eight-antenna MIMO array at 3.5-GHz band in the smartphone is easily implemented. The channel capacity of the eight-antenna MIMO array in an $8 \times 8$ MIMO system is calculated to be about 36 b/s/Hz with 20-dB signal-to-noise ratio. The measured channel capacity obtained using an $8 \times 8$ MIMO measurement setup is also presented, which generally agrees with the calculated results. The obtained eight-antenna MIMO array is promising for future or fifth-generation smartphone applications.
University of Rome Tor Vergata1, Monash University2, London Metropolitan University3, Institut national de la recherche scientifique4, Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education5, Edinburgh Napier University6, Université catholique de Louvain7, University of Bradford8, Universidad Pública de Navarra9
TL;DR: It is shown that the mutual-coupling reduction methods inspired by MTM and MTS concepts can provide a higher level of isolation between neighbouring radiating elements using easily realizable and cost-effective decoupling configurations that have negligible consequence on the array’s characteristics such as bandwidth, gain and radiation efficiency, and physical footprint.
Abstract: Nowadays synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems with the capability to radiate waves in more than one pattern and polarization are playing a key role in modern telecommunication and radar systems. This is possible with the use of antenna arrays as they offer advantages of high gain and beamforming capability, which can be utilized for controlling radiation pattern for electromagnetic (EM) interference immunity in wireless systems. However, with the growing demand for compact array antennas, the physical footprint of the arrays needs to be smaller and the consequent of this is severe degradation in the performance of the array resulting from strong mutual-coupling and crosstalk effects between adjacent radiating elements. This review presents a detailed systematic and theoretical study of various mutual-coupling suppression (decoupling) techniques with a strong focus on metamaterial (MTM) and metasurface (MTS) approaches. While the performance of systems employing antenna arrays can be enhanced by calibrating out the interferences digitally, however it is more efficient to apply decoupling techniques at the antenna itself. Previously various simple and cost-effective approaches have been demonstrated to effectively suppress unwanted mutual-coupling in arrays. Such techniques include the use of defected ground structure (DGS), parasitic or slot element, dielectric resonator antenna (DRA), complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR), decoupling networks, P.I.N or varactor diodes, electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures, etc. In this review, it is shown that the mutual-coupling reduction methods inspired By MTM and MTS concepts can provide a higher level of isolation between neighbouring radiating elements using easily realizable and cost-effective decoupling configurations that have negligible consequence on the array’s characteristics such as bandwidth, gain and radiation efficiency, and physical footprint.