Showing papers in "IEEE Access in 2016"
10 May 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: The conclusion is that the blockchain-IoT combination is powerful and can cause significant transformations across several industries, paving the way for new business models and novel, distributed applications.
Abstract: Motivated by the recent explosion of interest around blockchains, we examine whether they make a good fit for the Internet of Things (IoT) sector. Blockchains allow us to have a distributed peer-to-peer network where non-trusting members can interact with each other without a trusted intermediary, in a verifiable manner. We review how this mechanism works and also look into smart contracts—scripts that reside on the blockchain that allow for the automation of multi-step processes. We then move into the IoT domain, and describe how a blockchain-IoT combination: 1) facilitates the sharing of services and resources leading to the creation of a marketplace of services between devices and 2) allows us to automate in a cryptographically verifiable manner several existing, time-consuming workflows. We also point out certain issues that should be considered before the deployment of a blockchain network in an IoT setting: from transactional privacy to the expected value of the digitized assets traded on the network. Wherever applicable, we identify solutions and workarounds. Our conclusion is that the blockchain-IoT combination is powerful and can cause significant transformations across several industries, paving the way for new business models and novel, distributed applications.
12 Feb 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: It is argued that Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to provide a ubiquitous network of connected devices and smart sensors for SCC, and big data analytics has the Potential to enable the move from IoT to real-time control desired for S CC.
Abstract: This paper promotes the concept of smart and connected communities SCC, which is evolving from the concept of smart cities. SCC are envisioned to address synergistically the needs of remembering the past (preservation and revitalization), the needs of living in the present (livability), and the needs of planning for the future (attainability). Therefore, the vision of SCC is to improve livability, preservation, revitalization, and attainability of a community. The goal of building SCC for a community is to live in the present, plan for the future, and remember the past. We argue that Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to provide a ubiquitous network of connected devices and smart sensors for SCC, and big data analytics has the potential to enable the move from IoT to real-time control desired for SCC. We highlight mobile crowdsensing and cyber-physical cloud computing as two most important IoT technologies in promoting SCC. As a case study, we present TreSight, which integrates IoT and big data analytics for smart tourism and sustainable cultural heritage in the city of Trento, Italy.
26 Aug 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: An optimization problem is formulated to minimize the energy consumption of the offloading system, where the energy cost of both task computing and file transmission are taken into consideration, and an EECO scheme is designed, which jointly optimizes offloading and radio resource allocation to obtain the minimal energy consumption under the latency constraints.
Abstract: Mobile edge computing (MEC) is a promising paradigm to provide cloud-computing capabilities in close proximity to mobile devices in fifth-generation (5G) networks. In this paper, we study energy-efficient computation offloading (EECO) mechanisms for MEC in 5G heterogeneous networks. We formulate an optimization problem to minimize the energy consumption of the offloading system, where the energy cost of both task computing and file transmission are taken into consideration. Incorporating the multi-access characteristics of the 5G heterogeneous network, we then design an EECO scheme, which jointly optimizes offloading and radio resource allocation to obtain the minimal energy consumption under the latency constraints. Numerical results demonstrate energy efficiency improvement of our proposed EECO scheme.
11 Apr 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: An exhaustive overview of recent advances in underwater optical wireless communication is provided and a hybrid approach to an acousto-optic communication system is presented that complements the existing acoustic system, resulting in high data rates, low latency, and an energy-efficient system.
Abstract: Underwater wireless information transfer is of great interest to the military, industry, and the scientific community, as it plays an important role in tactical surveillance, pollution monitoring, oil control and maintenance, offshore explorations, climate change monitoring, and oceanography research. In order to facilitate all these activities, there is an increase in the number of unmanned vehicles or devices deployed underwater, which require high bandwidth and high capacity for information transfer underwater. Although tremendous progress has been made in the field of acoustic communication underwater, however, it is limited by bandwidth. All this has led to the proliferation of underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC), as it provides higher data rates than the traditional acoustic communication systems with significantly lower power consumption and simpler computational complexities for short-range wireless links. UOWC has many potential applications ranging from deep oceans to coastal waters. However, the biggest challenge for underwater wireless communication originates from the fundamental characteristics of ocean or sea water; addressing these challenges requires a thorough understanding of complex physio-chemical biological systems. In this paper, the main focus is to understand the feasibility and the reliability of high data rate underwater optical links due to various propagation phenomena that impact the performance of the system. This paper provides an exhaustive overview of recent advances in UOWC. Channel characterization, modulation schemes, coding techniques, and various sources of noise which are specific to UOWC are discussed. This paper not only provides exhaustive research in underwater optical communication but also aims to provide the development of new ideas that would help in the growth of future underwater communication. A hybrid approach to an acousto-optic communication system is presented that complements the existing acoustic system, resulting in high data rates, low latency, and an energy-efficient system.
01 Jan 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed hybrid architectures based on switching networks to reduce the complexity and the power consumption of the structures based on phase shifters and defined a power consumption model and used it to evaluate the energy efficiency of both structures.
Abstract: Hybrid analog/digital multiple-input multiple-output architectures were recently proposed as an alternative for fully digital-precoding in millimeter wave wireless communication systems. This is motivated by the possible reduction in the number of RF chains and analog-to-digital converters. In these architectures, the analog processing network is usually based on variable phase shifters. In this paper, we propose hybrid architectures based on switching networks to reduce the complexity and the power consumption of the structures based on phase shifters. We define a power consumption model and use it to evaluate the energy efficiency of both structures. To estimate the complete MIMO channel, we propose an open-loop compressive channel estimation technique that is independent of the hardware used in the analog processing stage. We analyze the performance of the new estimation algorithm for hybrid architectures based on phase shifters and switches. Using the estimate, we develop two algorithms for the design of the hybrid combiner based on switches and analyze the achieved spectral efficiency. Finally, we study the tradeoffs between power consumption, hardware complexity, and spectral efficiency for hybrid architectures based on phase shifting networks and switching networks. Numerical results show that architectures based on switches obtain equal or better channel estimation performance to that obtained using phase shifters, while reducing hardware complexity and power consumption. For equal power consumption, all the hybrid architectures provide similar spectral efficiencies.
31 Aug 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: This paper proposes a low-complexity sub-optimal user grouping scheme that exploits the channel gain differences among users in an NOMA cluster and groups them into a single cluster or multiple clusters in order to enhance the sum-throughput of the system.
Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently been considered as a key enabling technique for 5G cellular systems. In NOMA, by exploiting the channel gain differences, multiple users are multiplexed into transmission power domain and then non-orthogonally scheduled for transmission on the same spectrum resources. Successive interference cancellation (SIC) is then applied at the receivers to decode the message signals. In this paper, first, we briefly describe the differences in the working principles of uplink and downlink NOMA transmissions in a cellular wireless system. Then, for both uplink and downlink NOMAs, we formulate a sum-throughput maximization problem in a cell such that the user clustering (i.e., grouping users into a single cluster or multiple clusters) and power allocations in NOMA clusters can be optimized under transmission power constraints, minimum rate requirements of the users, and SIC constraints. Due to the combinatorial nature of the formulated mixed integer non-linear programming problem, we solve the problem in two steps, i.e., by first grouping users into clusters and then optimizing their respective power allocations. In particular, we propose a low-complexity sub-optimal user grouping scheme. The proposed scheme exploits the channel gain differences among users in an NOMA cluster and groups them into a single cluster or multiple clusters in order to enhance the sum-throughput of the system. For a given set of NOMA clusters, we then derive the optimal power allocation policy that maximizes the sum-throughput per NOMA cluster and in turn maximizes the overall system throughput. Using Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions, closed-form solutions for optimal power allocations are derived for any cluster size, considering both uplink and downlink NOMA systems. Numerical results compare the performances of NOMA and OMA and illustrate the significance of NOMA in various network scenarios.
20 Apr 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: This pioneering survey explains the 5G backhaul paradigm, presents a critical analysis of legacy, cutting-edge solutions, and new trends in backhauling, and proposes a novel consolidated 5GBackhaul framework that reinforces the belief that no single solution can solve the holistic 5Gbackhaul problem.
Abstract: 5G is the next cellular generation and is expected to quench the growing thirst for taxing data rates and to enable the Internet of Things. Focused research and standardization work have been addressing the corresponding challenges from the radio perspective while employing advanced features, such as network densification, massive multiple-input-multiple-output antennae, coordinated multi-point processing, inter-cell interference mitigation techniques, carrier aggregation, and new spectrum exploration. Nevertheless, a new bottleneck has emerged: the backhaul. The ultra-dense and heavy traffic cells should be connected to the core network through the backhaul, often with extreme requirements in terms of capacity, latency, availability, energy, and cost efficiency. This pioneering survey explains the 5G backhaul paradigm, presents a critical analysis of legacy, cutting-edge solutions, and new trends in backhauling, and proposes a novel consolidated 5G backhaul framework. A new joint radio access and backhaul perspective is proposed for the evaluation of backhaul technologies which reinforces the belief that no single solution can solve the holistic 5G backhaul problem. This paper also reveals hidden advantages and shortcomings of backhaul solutions, which are not evident when backhaul technologies are inspected as an independent part of the 5G network. This survey is key in identifying essential catalysts that are believed to jointly pave the way to solving the beyond-2020 backhauling challenge. Lessons learned, unsolved challenges, and a new consolidated 5G backhaul vision are thus presented.
07 Sep 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: This paper presents a comprehensive framework of IoV with emphasis on layered architecture, protocol stack, network model, challenges, and future aspects, and performs a qualitative comparison between IoV and VANETs.
Abstract: Internet of Things is smartly changing various existing research areas into new themes, including smart health, smart home, smart industry, and smart transport. Relying on the basis of “smart transport,” Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is evolving as a new theme of research and development from vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). This paper presents a comprehensive framework of IoV with emphasis on layered architecture, protocol stack, network model, challenges, and future aspects. Specifically, following the background on the evolution of VANETs and motivation on IoV an overview of IoV is presented as the heterogeneous vehicular networks. The IoV includes five types of vehicular communications, namely, vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-roadside, vehicle-to-infrastructure of cellular networks, vehicle-to-personal devices, and vehicle-to-sensors. A five layered architecture of IoV is proposed considering functionalities and representations of each layer. A protocol stack for the layered architecture is structured considering management, operational, and security planes. A network model of IoV is proposed based on the three network elements, including cloud, connection, and client. The benefits of the design and development of IoV are highlighted by performing a qualitative comparison between IoV and VANETs. Finally, the challenges ahead for realizing IoV are discussed and future aspects of IoV are envisioned.
03 Nov 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: The combination of tomographic imaging and deep learning, or machine learning in general, promises to empower not only image analysis but also image reconstruction as discussed by the authors, and the latter aspect is considered in this perspective article with an emphasis on medical imaging to develop a new generation of image reconstruction theories and techniques.
Abstract: The combination of tomographic imaging and deep learning, or machine learning in general, promises to empower not only image analysis but also image reconstruction. The latter aspect is considered in this perspective article with an emphasis on medical imaging to develop a new generation of image reconstruction theories and techniques. This direction might lead to intelligent utilization of domain knowledge from big data, innovative approaches for image reconstruction, and superior performance in clinical and preclinical applications. To realize the full impact of machine learning for tomographic imaging, major theoretical, technical and translational efforts are immediately needed.
26 May 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: In this paper, the various RDH algorithms and researches have been classified into the following six categories: 1) RDH into image spatial domain; 2) RD h into image compressed domain (e.g., JPEG); 3) RDh suitable for image semi-fragile authentication; 4)RDH with image contrast enhancement; 5) RD H into encrypted images, which is expected to have wide application in the cloud computation; and 6) RDD into video and into audio.
Abstract: In the past two decades, reversible data hiding (RDH), also referred to as lossless or invertible data hiding, has gradually become a very active research area in the field of data hiding. This has been verified by more and more papers on increasingly wide-spread subjects in the field of RDH research that have been published these days. In this paper, the various RDH algorithms and researches have been classified into the following six categories: 1) RDH into image spatial domain; 2) RDH into image compressed domain (e.g., JPEG); 3) RDH suitable for image semi-fragile authentication; 4) RDH with image contrast enhancement; 5) RDH into encrypted images, which is expected to have wide application in the cloud computation; and 6) RDH into video and into audio. For each of these six categories, the history of technical developments, the current state of the arts, and the possible future researches are presented and discussed. It is expected that the RDH technology and its applications in the real word will continue to move ahead.
31 Mar 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: The focus of the study presented in this paper is to highlight the security challenges that the industrial SCADA systems face in an IoT-cloud environment and provides the existing best practices and recommendations for improving and maintaining security.
Abstract: Industrial systems always prefer to reduce their operational expenses. To support such reductions, they need solutions that are capable of providing stability, fault tolerance, and flexibility. One such solution for industrial systems is cyber physical system (CPS) integration with the Internet of Things (IoT) utilizing cloud computing services. These CPSs can be considered as smart industrial systems, with their most prevalent applications in smart transportation, smart grids, smart medical and eHealthcare systems, and many more. These industrial CPSs mostly utilize supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to control and monitor their critical infrastructure (CI). For example, WebSCADA is an application used for smart medical technologies, making improved patient monitoring and more timely decisions possible. The focus of the study presented in this paper is to highlight the security challenges that the industrial SCADA systems face in an IoT-cloud environment. Classical SCADA systems are already lacking in proper security measures; however, with the integration of complex new architectures for the future Internet based on the concepts of IoT, cloud computing, mobile wireless sensor networks, and so on, there are large issues at stakes in the security and deployment of these classical systems. Therefore, the integration of these future Internet concepts needs more research effort. This paper, along with highlighting the security challenges of these CI’s, also provides the existing best practices and recommendations for improving and maintaining security. Finally, this paper briefly describes future research directions to secure these critical CPSs and help the research community in identifying the research gaps in this regard.
21 Jun 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A hybrid antenna for future 4G/5G multiple input multiple output (MIMO) applications is proposed, and typically, experimental results such as S-parameter, antenna efficiency, radiation pattern, and envelope correlation coefficient are presented.
Abstract: A hybrid antenna is proposed for future 4G/5G multiple input multiple output (MIMO) applications. The proposed antenna is composed of two antenna modules, namely, 4G antenna module and 5G antenna module. The 4G antenna module is a two-antenna array capable of covering the GSM850/900/1800/1900, UMTS2100, and LTE2300/2500 operating bands, while the 5G antenna module is an eight-antenna array operating in the 3.5-GHz band capable of covering the $C$ -band (3400–3600 MHz), which could meet the demand of future 5G application. Compared with ideal uncorrelated antennas in an $8 \times 8$ MIMO system, the 5G antenna module has shown good ergodic channel capacity of $\sim 40$ b/s/Hz, which is only 6 b/s/Hz lower than ideal case. This multi-mode hybrid antenna is fabricated, and typically, experimental results such as S-parameter, antenna efficiency, radiation pattern, and envelope correlation coefficient are presented.
27 Jan 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: The principles, performance metrics and key generation procedure are comprehensively surveyed, and methods for optimizing the performance of key generation are discussed.
Abstract: Key generation from the randomness of wireless channels is a promising alternative to public key cryptography for the establishment of cryptographic keys between any two users. This paper reviews the current techniques for wireless key generation. The principles, performance metrics and key generation procedure are comprehensively surveyed. Methods for optimizing the performance of key generation are also discussed. Key generation applications in various environments are then introduced along with the challenges of applying the approach in each scenario. The paper concludes with some suggestions for future studies.
13 Oct 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: The feasibility of recognizing human hand gestures using micro-Doppler signatures measured by Doppler radar with a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is investigated and the classification accuracy is found to be 85.6%.
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of recognizing human hand gestures using micro-Doppler signatures measured by Doppler radar with a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN). Hand gesture recognition using radar can be applied to control electronic appliances. Compared with an optical recognition system, radar can work regardless of light conditions and it can be embedded in a case. We classify ten different hand gestures, with only micro-Doppler signatures on spectrograms without range information. The ten gestures, which included swiping from left to right, swiping from right to left, rotating clockwise, rotating counterclockwise, pushing, double pushing, holding, and double holding, were measured using Doppler radar and their spectrograms investigated. A DCNN was employed to classify the spectrograms, with 90% of the data utilized for training and the remaining 10% for validation. After five-fold validation, the classification accuracy of the proposed method was found to be 85.6%. With seven gestures, the accuracy increased to 93.1%.
01 Nov 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A general overview of the current low-rank channel estimation approaches is provided, including their basic assumptions, key results, as well as pros and cons on addressing the aforementioned tricky challenges.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output is a promising physical layer technology for 5G wireless communications due to its capability of high spectrum and energy efficiency, high spatial resolution, and simple transceiver design. To embrace its potential gains, the acquisition of channel state information is crucial, which unfortunately faces a number of challenges, such as the uplink pilot contamination, the overhead of downlink training and feedback, and the computational complexity. In order to reduce the effective channel dimensions, researchers have been investigating the low-rank (sparse) properties of channel environments from different viewpoints. This paper then provides a general overview of the current low-rank channel estimation approaches, including their basic assumptions, key results, as well as pros and cons on addressing the aforementioned tricky challenges. Comparisons among all these methods are provided for better understanding and some future research prospects for these low-rank approaches are also forecasted.
06 Jun 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: An overview of the battle ground by defining the roles and operations of privacy systems and the effort of privacy study from the perspectives of different disciplines, respectively is presented.
Abstract: One of the biggest concerns of big data is privacy. However, the study on big data privacy is still at a very early stage. We believe the forthcoming solutions and theories of big data privacy root from the in place research output of the privacy discipline. Motivated by these factors, we extensively survey the existing research outputs and achievements of the privacy field in both application and theoretical angles, aiming to pave a solid starting ground for interested readers to address the challenges in the big data case. We first present an overview of the battle ground by defining the roles and operations of privacy systems. Second, we review the milestones of the current two major research categories of privacy: data clustering and privacy frameworks. Third, we discuss the effort of privacy study from the perspectives of different disciplines, respectively. Fourth, the mathematical description, measurement, and modeling on privacy are presented. We summarize the challenges and opportunities of this promising topic at the end of this paper, hoping to shed light on the exciting and almost uncharted land.
29 Dec 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A secure system for PSN-based healthcare using blockchain technique, an improved version of the IEEE 802.15.6 display authenticated association, and a protocol suite to study protocol runtime and other factors are proposed.
Abstract: Modern technologies of mobile computing and wireless sensing prompt the concept of pervasive social network (PSN)-based healthcare. To realize the concept, the core problem is how a PSN node can securely share health data with other nodes in the network. In this paper, we propose a secure system for PSN-based healthcare. Two protocols are designed for the system. The first one is an improved version of the IEEE 802.15.6 display authenticated association. It establishes secure links with unbalanced computational requirements for mobile devices and resource-limited sensor nodes. The second protocol uses blockchain technique to share health data among PSN nodes. We realize a protocol suite to study protocol runtime and other factors. In addition, human body channels are proposed for PSN nodes in some use cases. The proposed system illustrates a potential method of using blockchain for PSN-based applications.
05 Apr 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: In this article, a new multiple-input multiple-output non-orthogonal multiple access (MIMO-NOMA) scheme was designed, where one user is served with its quality of service requirement strictly met, and the other user was served opportunistically by using the NOMA concept.
Abstract: A feature of the Internet of Things (IoT) is that some users in the system need to be served quickly for small packet transmission. To address this requirement, a new multiple-input multiple-output non-orthogonal multiple access (MIMO-NOMA) scheme is designed in this paper, where one user is served with its quality of service requirement strictly met, and the other user is served opportunistically by using the NOMA concept. The novelty of this new scheme is that it confronts the challenge that the existing MIMO-NOMA schemes rely on the assumption that users’ channel conditions are different, a strong assumption which may not be valid in practice. The developed precoding and detection strategies can effectively create a significant difference between the users’ effective channel gains, and therefore, the potential of NOMA can be realized even if the users’ original channel conditions are similar. Analytical and numerical results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed MIMO-NOMA scheme.
02 Mar 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a conceptual model of how such an architecture can be organized and specify the features that an Internet of Drones (IoD) system based on their architecture should implement.
Abstract: The Internet of Drones (IoD) is a layered network control architecture designed mainly for coordinating the access of unmanned aerial vehicles to controlled airspace, and providing navigation services between locations referred to as nodes. The IoD provides generic services for various drone applications, such as package delivery, traffic surveillance, search and rescue, and more. In this paper, we present a conceptual model of how such an architecture can be organized and we specify the features that an IoD system based on our architecture should implement. For doing so, we extract key concepts from three existing large scale networks, namely the air traffic control network, the cellular network, and the Internet, and explore their connections to our novel architecture for drone traffic management. A simulation platform for IoD is being implemented, which can be accessed from www.IoDnet.org in the future.
21 Sep 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A two-fold benchmarking scheme for evaluating existing SAR-ATR systems and motivating new system designs is proposed, and a taxonomization methodology for surveying the numerous methods published in the open literature is proposed.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to survey and assess the state-of-the-art in automatic target recognition for synthetic aperture radar imagery (SAR-ATR). The aim is not to develop an exhaustive survey of the voluminous literature, but rather to capture in one place the various approaches for implementing the SAR-ATR system. This paper is meant to be as self-contained as possible, and it approaches the SAR-ATR problem from a holistic end-to-end perspective. A brief overview for the breadth of the SAR-ATR challenges is conducted. This is couched in terms of a single-channel SAR, and it is extendable to multi-channel SAR systems. Stages pertinent to the basic SAR-ATR system structure are defined, and the motivations of the requirements and constraints on the system constituents are addressed. For each stage in the SAR-ATR processing chain, a taxonomization methodology for surveying the numerous methods published in the open literature is proposed. Carefully selected works from the literature are presented under the taxa proposed. Novel comparisons, discussions, and comments are pinpointed throughout this paper. A two-fold benchmarking scheme for evaluating existing SAR-ATR systems and motivating new system designs is proposed. The scheme is applied to the works surveyed in this paper. Finally, a discussion is presented in which various interrelated issues, such as standard operating conditions, extended operating conditions, and target-model design, are addressed. This paper is a contribution toward fulfilling an objective of end-to-end SAR-ATR system design.
22 Nov 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A new emotion recognition system based on facial expression images that is superior to three state-of-the-art methods is proposed and achieved an overall accuracy of 96.77±0.10%.
Abstract: Emotion recognition represents the position and motion of facial muscles. It contributes significantly in many fields. Current approaches have not obtained good results. This paper aimed to propose a new emotion recognition system based on facial expression images. We enrolled 20 subjects and let each subject pose seven different emotions: happy, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear, and neutral. Afterward, we employed biorthogonal wavelet entropy to extract multiscale features, and used fuzzy multiclass support vector machine to be the classifier. The stratified cross validation was employed as a strict validation model. The statistical analysis showed our method achieved an overall accuracy of 96.77±0.10%. Besides, our method is superior to three state-of-the-art methods. In all, this proposed method is efficient.
09 Sep 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: This paper is the first to provide a comprehensive description of every possible IoT implementation aspect for the two technologies, software defined networking and network virtualization, by outlining the ways of combining SDN and NV.
Abstract: The imminent arrival of the Internet of Things (IoT), which consists of a vast number of devices with heterogeneous characteristics, means that future networks need a new architecture to accommodate the expected increase in data generation. Software defined networking (SDN) and network virtualization (NV) are two technologies that promise to cost-effectively provide the scale and versatility necessary for IoT services. In this paper, we survey the state of the art on the application of SDN and NV to IoT. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to provide a comprehensive description of every possible IoT implementation aspect for the two technologies. We start by outlining the ways of combining SDN and NV. Subsequently, we present how the two technologies can be used in the mobile and cellular context, with emphasis on forthcoming 5G networks. Afterward, we move to the study of wireless sensor networks, arguably the current foremost example of an IoT network. Finally, we review some general SDN-NV-enabled IoT architectures, along with real-life deployments and use-cases. We conclude by giving directions for future research on this topic.
14 Jan 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A systematic review of high mobility communications, which focuses primarily on physical layer operations, which are affected the most by the mobile environment, and comprehensive reviews of techniques that can address these challenges and utilize the unique opportunities.
Abstract: Providing reliable broadband wireless communications in high mobility environments, such as high-speed railway systems, remains one of the main challenges faced by the development of the next generation wireless systems. This paper provides a systematic review of high mobility communications. We first summarize a list of key challenges and opportunities in high mobility communication systems, then provide comprehensive reviews of techniques that can address these challenges and utilize the unique opportunities. The review covers a wide spectrum of communication operations, including the accurate modeling of high mobility channels, the transceiver structures that can exploit the properties of high mobility environments, the signal processing techniques that can harvest the benefits (e.g., Doppler diversity) and mitigate the impairments (e.g., carrier frequency offset, intercarrier interference, channel estimation errors) in high mobility systems, and the mobility management and network architectures that are designed specifically for high mobility systems. The survey focuses primarily on physical layer operations, which are affected the most by the mobile environment, with some additional discussions on higher layer operations, such as handover management and control-plane/user-plane decoupling, which are essential to high mobility operations. Future research directions on high mobility communications are summarized at the end of this paper.
25 May 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of the entire wireless radio frequency chaos-based communication systems, which categorizes different transmission techniques by elaborating on its modulation, receiver type, data rate, complexity, energy efficiency, multiple access scheme, and performance.
Abstract: Since the early 1990s, a large number of chaos-based communication systems have been proposed exploiting the properties of chaotic waveforms. The motivation lies in the significant advantages provided by this class of non-linear signals. For this aim, many communication schemes and applications have been specially designed for chaos-based communication systems where energy, data rate, and synchronization awareness are considered in most designs. Recently, the major focus, however, has been given to the non-coherent chaos-based systems to benefit from the advantages of chaotic signals and non-coherent detection and to avoid the use of chaotic synchronization, which suffers from weak performance in the presence of additive noise. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the entire wireless radio frequency chaos-based communication systems. First, it outlines the challenges of chaos implementations and synchronization methods, followed by comprehensive literature review and analysis of chaos-based coherent techniques and their applications. In the second part of the survey, we offer a taxonomy of the current literature by focusing on non-coherent detection methods. For each modulation class, this paper categorizes different transmission techniques by elaborating on its modulation, receiver type, data rate, complexity, energy efficiency, multiple access scheme, and performance. In addition, this survey reports on the analysis of tradeoff between different chaos-based communication systems. Finally, several concluding remarks are discussed.
26 Sep 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: The motivation and development of networked healthcare applications and systems is presented along with the adoption of cloud computing in healthcare, and a cloudlet-based mobile cloud-computing infrastructure to be used for healthcare big data applications is described.
Abstract: Mobile devices are increasingly becoming an indispensable part of people’s daily life, facilitating to perform a variety of useful tasks. Mobile cloud computing integrates mobile and cloud computing to expand their capabilities and benefits and overcomes their limitations, such as limited memory, CPU power, and battery life. Big data analytics technologies enable extracting value from data having four Vs: volume, variety, velocity, and veracity. This paper discusses networked healthcare and the role of mobile cloud computing and big data analytics in its enablement. The motivation and development of networked healthcare applications and systems is presented along with the adoption of cloud computing in healthcare. A cloudlet-based mobile cloud-computing infrastructure to be used for healthcare big data applications is described. The techniques, tools, and applications of big data analytics are reviewed. Conclusions are drawn concerning the design of networked healthcare systems using big data and mobile cloud-computing technologies. An outlook on networked healthcare is given.
12 May 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: These performance investigations identify the beneficial operating region of the SIM scheme over its conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) counterpart, hence providing general design guidelines for the SIM parameters.
Abstract: The achievable performance of subcarrier-index modulation (SIM) is analyzed in terms of its minimum Euclidean distance, constrained and unconstrained average mutual information, as well as its peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Our performance investigations identify the beneficial operating region of the SIM scheme over its conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) counterpart, hence providing general design guidelines for the SIM parameters. More specifically, an SIM scheme is shown to be beneficial for the scenario of a relatively low transmission rate below 2 b/s/Hz. In addition, we demonstrate that the PAPR of the SIM scheme is comparable with that of its OFDM counterpart under the idealized simplifying assumption of having Gaussian input symbols.
13 Apr 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: This paper surveys various applications of trajectory data mining, e.g., path discovery, location prediction, movement behavior analysis, and so on, and reviews an extensive collection of existing trajectory datamining techniques and discusses them in a framework of trajectoryData Mining.
Abstract: Rapid advance of location acquisition technologies boosts the generation of trajectory data, which track the traces of moving objects. A trajectory is typically represented by a sequence of timestamped geographical locations. A wide spectrum of applications can benefit from the trajectory data mining. Bringing unprecedented opportunities, large-scale trajectory data also pose great challenges. In this paper, we survey various applications of trajectory data mining, e.g., path discovery, location prediction, movement behavior analysis, and so on. Furthermore, this paper reviews an extensive collection of existing trajectory data mining techniques and discusses them in a framework of trajectory data mining. This framework and the survey can be used as a guideline for designing future trajectory data mining solutions.
24 Jun 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: A suitable radio numerology to support the typical characteristics, that is, massive connection density and small and bursty packet transmissions with the constraint of low-cost and low complexity operation of IoT devices is designed.
Abstract: The parameters of physical layer radio frame for 5th generation (5G) mobile cellular systems are expected to be flexibly configured to cope with diverse requirements of different scenarios and services. This paper presents a frame structure and design, which is specifically targeting Internet of Things (IoT) provision in 5G wireless communication systems. We design a suitable radio numerology to support the typical characteristics, that is, massive connection density and small and bursty packet transmissions with the constraint of low-cost and low complexity operation of IoT devices. We also elaborate on the design of parameters for random access channel enabling massive connection requests by IoT devices to support the required connection density. The proposed design is validated by link level simulation results to show that the proposed numerology can cope with transceiver imperfections and channel impairments. Furthermore, the results are also presented to show the impact of different values of guard band on system performance using different subcarrier spacing sizes for data and random access channels, which show the effectiveness of the selected waveform and guard bandwidth. Finally, we present system-level simulation results that validate the proposed design under realistic cell deployments and inter-cell interference conditions.
05 Apr 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: The CityPulse framework supports smart city service creation by means of a distributed system for semantic discovery, data analytics, and interpretation of large-scale (near-)real-time Internet of Things data and social media data streams to break away from silo applications and enable cross-domain data integration.
Abstract: Our world and our lives are changing in many ways. Communication, networking, and computing technologies are among the most influential enablers that shape our lives today. Digital data and connected worlds of physical objects, people, and devices are rapidly changing the way we work, travel, socialize, and interact with our surroundings, and they have a profound impact on different domains, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring, urban systems, and control and management applications, among several other areas. Cities currently face an increasing demand for providing services that can have an impact on people’s everyday lives. The CityPulse framework supports smart city service creation by means of a distributed system for semantic discovery, data analytics, and interpretation of large-scale (near-)real-time Internet of Things data and social media data streams. To goal is to break away from silo applications and enable cross-domain data integration. The CityPulse framework integrates multimodal, mixed quality, uncertain and incomplete data to create reliable, dependable information and continuously adapts data processing techniques to meet the quality of information requirements from end users. Different than existing solutions that mainly offer unified views of the data, the CityPulse framework is also equipped with powerful data analytics modules that perform intelligent data aggregation, event detection, quality assessment, contextual filtering, and decision support. This paper presents the framework, describes its components, and demonstrates how they interact to support easy development of custom-made applications for citizens. The benefits and the effectiveness of the framework are demonstrated in a use-case scenario implementation presented in this paper.
19 Aug 2016-IEEE Access
TL;DR: This paper gives a brief introduction on big data, smart grid, and big data application in the smart grid scenario, and recent studies and developments are summarized in the context of integrated architecture and key enabling technologies.
Abstract: As a significant application of energy, smart grid is a complicated interconnected power grid that involves sensors, deployment strategies, smart meters, and real-time data processing. It continuously generates data with large volume, high velocity, and diverse variety. In this paper, we first give a brief introduction on big data, smart grid, and big data application in the smart grid scenario. Then, recent studies and developments are summarized in the context of integrated architecture and key enabling technologies. Meanwhile, security issues are specifically addressed. Finally, we introduce several typical big data applications and point out future challenges in the energy domain.