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Author

James M. Tour

Other affiliations: Moscow State University, IBM, Northwestern University  ...read more
Bio: James M. Tour is an academic researcher from Rice University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Graphene & Carbon nanotube. The author has an hindex of 143, co-authored 859 publication(s) receiving 91364 citation(s). Previous affiliations of James M. Tour include Moscow State University & IBM.
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jul 2010-ACS Nano
TL;DR: An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described, finding that excluding the NaNO(3), increasing the amount of KMnO(4), and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H(2)SO(4)/H(3)PO(4) improves the efficiency of the oxidation process.
Abstract: An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers’ method (KMnO4, NaNO3, H2SO4) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO3, increasing the amount of KMnO4, and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers’ method or Hummers’ method with additional KMnO4. Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers’ method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers’ method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the ...

8,351 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Apr 2009-Nature
TL;DR: A simple solution-based oxidative process for producing a nearly 100% yield of nanoribbon structures by lengthwise cutting and unravelling of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) side walls is described.
Abstract: Graphene, or single-layered graphite, with its high crystallinity and interesting semimetal electronic properties, has emerged as an exciting two-dimensional material showing great promise for the fabrication of nanoscale devices. Thin, elongated strips of graphene that possess straight edges, termed graphene ribbons, gradually transform from semiconductors to semimetals as their width increases, and represent a particularly versatile variety of graphene. Several lithographic, chemical and synthetic procedures are known to produce microscopic samples of graphene nanoribbons, and one chemical vapour deposition process has successfully produced macroscopic quantities of nanoribbons at 950 degrees C. Here we describe a simple solution-based oxidative process for producing a nearly 100% yield of nanoribbon structures by lengthwise cutting and unravelling of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) side walls. Although oxidative shortening of MWCNTs has previously been achieved, lengthwise cutting is hitherto unreported. Ribbon structures with high water solubility are obtained. Subsequent chemical reduction of the nanoribbons from MWCNTs results in restoration of electrical conductivity. These early results affording nanoribbons could eventually lead to applications in fields of electronics and composite materials where bulk quantities of nanoribbons are required.

3,052 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Mark A. Reed1, Mark A. Reed2, Chongwu Zhou1, Chongwu Zhou2  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
10 Oct 1997-Science
Abstract: Molecules of benzene-1,4-dithiol were self-assembled onto the two facing gold electrodes of a mechanically controllable break junction to form a statically stable gold-sulfur-aryl-sulfur-gold system, allowing for direct observation of charge transport through the molecules. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature demonstrated a highly reproducible apparent gap at about 0.7 volt, and the conductance-voltage curve showed two steps in both bias directions. This study provides a quantative measure of the conductance of a junction containing a single molecule, which is a fundamental step in the emerging area of molecular-scale electronics.

3,039 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
19 Nov 1999-Science
TL;DR: A molecule containing a nitroamine redox center was used in the active self-assembled monolayer in an electronic device that exhibited negative differential resistance and an on-off peak-to-valley ratio in excess of 1000:1.
Abstract: A molecule containing a nitroamine redox center (2'-amino-4-ethynylphenyl-4'-ethynylphenyl-5'-nitro-1-benzenethiol) was used in the active self-assembled monolayer in an electronic device. Current-voltage measurements of the device exhibited negative differential resistance and an on-off peak-to-valley ratio in excess of 1000:1.

2,228 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nanotubes derivatized with a 4-tert-butylbenzene moiety were found to possess significantly improved solubility in organic solvents and represents the marriage of wire-like nanotubes with molecular electronic devices.
Abstract: Small-diameter (ca. 0.7 nm) single-wall carbon nanotubes are predicted to display enhanced reactivity relative to larger-diameter nanotubes due to increased curvature strain. The derivatization of these small-diameter nanotubes via electrochemical reduction of a variety of aryl diazonium salts is described. The estimated degree of functionalization is as high as one out of every 20 carbons in the nanotubes bearing a functionalized moiety. The functionalizing moieties can be removed by heating in an argon atmosphere. Nanotubes derivatized with a 4-tert-butylbenzene moiety were found to possess significantly improved solubility in organic solvents. Functionalization of the nanotubes with a molecular system that has exhibited switching and memory behavior is shown. This represents the marriage of wire-like nanotubes with molecular electronic devices.

1,342 citations


Cited by
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Steven J. Plimpton1Institutions (1)
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

24,496 citations


28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Andre K. Geim1Institutions (1)
19 Jun 2009-Science
TL;DR: This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.
Abstract: Graphene is a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. It is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Its charge carriers exhibit giant intrinsic mobility, have zero effective mass, and can travel for micrometers without scattering at room temperature. Graphene can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than that of copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases, and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a benchtop experiment. This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.

10,893 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review will be of value to synthetic chemists interested in this emerging field of materials science, as well as those investigating applications of graphene who would find a more thorough treatment of the chemistry of graphene oxide useful in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches which utilize this material.
Abstract: The chemistry of graphene oxide is discussed in this critical review Particular emphasis is directed toward the synthesis of graphene oxide, as well as its structure Graphene oxide as a substrate for a variety of chemical transformations, including its reduction to graphene-like materials, is also discussed This review will be of value to synthetic chemists interested in this emerging field of materials science, as well as those investigating applications of graphene who would find a more thorough treatment of the chemistry of graphene oxide useful in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches which utilize this material (91 references)

9,151 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jul 2010-ACS Nano
TL;DR: An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described, finding that excluding the NaNO(3), increasing the amount of KMnO(4), and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H(2)SO(4)/H(3)PO(4) improves the efficiency of the oxidation process.
Abstract: An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers’ method (KMnO4, NaNO3, H2SO4) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO3, increasing the amount of KMnO4, and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers’ method or Hummers’ method with additional KMnO4. Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers’ method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers’ method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the ...

8,351 citations


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Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 143

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
202115
202027
201929
201835
201740
201639