Bio: K. Lalitha is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mimosine & Glutathione peroxidase. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 13 publications receiving 128 citations.
TL;DR: Electron microscopic observations revealed structural changes such as loss of cristae with proliferative and degenerative changes of the mitochondria in Se deficiency and involvement of Se in maintaining structure and functional efficiency of mitochondria is evident from the present study.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) deficiency in the experimental models, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Corcyra cephalonica, resulted in impaired mitochondrial substrate oxidations and lowered thiol levels. Studies with respiratory inhibitors confirmed reduced mitochondrial electron transport enzyme activities, especially at cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal segment. Enhanced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation in Se deficiency was more pronounced in the heart tissue of the quail compared to other tissues. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity toward H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide were generally low in the insect muscle tissue and activity toward H2O2 was maximal in the quail heart mitochondria that was not very sensitive to Se status. Lowered COX activity in Se deficiency was more directly correlated with the increased level of lipid peroxidation than with the GSH-Px activity measured, suggestive of Se mediated protective mechanisms independent of GSH-Px. Electron microscopic observations revealed structural changes such as loss of cristae with proliferative and degenerative changes of the mitochondria in Se deficiency. Involvement of Se in maintaining structure and functional efficiency of mitochondria is evident from the present study.
TL;DR: The results including the differential response of GR activity to Se or mimosine supplementation are reflective of an effective reductive environment in Se groups and increased turnover of GSH in the presence of Mimosine.
Abstract: Actaptive alterations in glutathione (GSH) metabolism were studied during oxidative stress induced by selenium (Se) deficiency in germinating seedlings ofTrigonella foenum- graecum grown for 72 h and the response to supplementation individually of Se or mimosine was explored. Growth enhancement with improved mitochondrial efficiency was elicited by supplementation of Se at 0.5-0.75 ppm or mimosine at 0.1-0.2 mM. Total thiol and protein levels of mitochondrial and soluble fractions, in general, did not vary significantly with supplementation of either Se or mimosine except that the mitochondrial protein levels in mimosine groups (0.1-0.2 mM) decreased by 20–30%. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased by twofold in activity toward H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), and t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in Se groups, and by 50–60% increase toward H2O2 and CHP but by a twofold enhancement in enzyme activity with tBHP in mimosine groups. Soluble GSH-Px activity increased by 30–40% only in mimosine groups and remained unaltered in Se groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) in the soluble fraction of both Se and mimosine groups increased dramatically by fivefold to sixfold. Distinct differences were noted in the response of the stressed seedlings toward exposure to Se or mimosine and included a decline in glutathione reductase (GR) activity by 50–60% in both mitochondria and soluble fractions of Se groups and an increase in GR activity of the mitochondria by twofold and of the soluble enzyme activity by 30% in the mimosine groups. Mimosine exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, but, in contrast, a significant enhancement by 50% was noted in the Se group at 0.75 ppm. The results including the differential response of GR activity to Se or mimosine supplementation are reflective of an effective reductive environment in Se groups and increased turnover of GSH in the presence of mimosine.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated for the first time that mimosine, a naturally occuring toxic amino acid, could be a beneficial growth factor in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2 mM.
Abstract: Oxidative stress during selenium (Se) deficiency in the seedlings ofTrigonella foenum-graecum grown for 72 h was investigated and the response to supplemented levels of Se (0.5-1 ppm) and mimosine (0.05-1 mM) was evaluated. Beneficial effects of Se was maximal at 0.75 ppm. Mimosine, a toxic amino acid, was also found to be beneficial to the growth of the seedlings exposed up to 0.2 mM. When compared to the stressed seedlings, mitochondrial oxygen uptake from seedlings of Se (0.75 ppm) group and mimosine (0.2 mM) group exhibited threefold enhancement in state 3 respiration rate and a controlled state 4 rate, with respiratory control ratios of 5–8. Upon supplementation at the optimal levels, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were enhanced fourfold with Se and eightfold with mimosine in the mitochondria. The soluble activity in mimosine groups increased twofold, but only by 75% in Se groups. Peroxidase activity registered a significant increase by threefold in mitochondria and fourfold in soluble fraction in both Se and mimosine groups. Exposure to Se or mimosine exhibited a differential response in the mitochondrial catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (Asc-Px) activities. In the Se groups, both catalase and Asc-Px in mitochondria decreased by 50–60%, which was contrasted by 60% increase in Asc-Px activity and 40% in catalase activity in mimosine groups. Supplementation with either Se or mimosine evoked similar responses of increases with respect to soluble catalase by twofold to threefold and Asc-Px by 90%. The results of the present study reveal (1) the Prevalence of oxidative stress inT. foenum-graecum during Se deficiency, (2) enhanced mitochondrial functional efficiency mediated by Se and mimosine independently, and (3) an antitoxidative role for mimosine during Se deficiency. The study demonstrates for the first time that mimosine, a naturally occuring toxic amino acid, could be a beneficial growth factor in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2 mM.
TL;DR: In this article, the requirement, uptake, and subcellular distribution of Na2 · 75SeO3 in the larvae of C. cephalonica was investigated, and a more fundamental role for selenoprotein in the mitochondrial energy metabolism emerges from these studies.
Abstract: Requirement, uptake, and subcellular distribution of Na2 75SeO3 in the larvae of the insectC. cephalonica was investigated. That Se is well tolerated byC. cephalonica upto an added level of 2 ppm in the diet is suggested by the observed increase in body weight, total protein, and succinate dehydrogenase levels. Significant increases in the State 3 respiration ensued with Se supplementation up to 2 ppm in the mitochondrial oxidation of D-glycerol 1-phosphate, succinate and NADH, along with concomitant unaltered State 4 respiration, leading to enhanced RCR values. Maximal uptake of75Se was registered in the larvae maintained on basal diet when subjected to short-term exposure to 0.5 ppm75Se level. When exposure level was further increased up to 20 ppm, the observed decrease in the uptake of75Se suggested that Se status of larvae itself controlled the tissue uptake. Subcellular distribution pattern revealed maximal incorporation of75Se (cpm/g tissue) in the supernatant fraction, whereas, maximal specific75Se activity (cpm/mg protein) was associated with the mitochondrial fraction. Autoradiography of the soluble fractions indicated the presence of single selenoprotein in the larval group with short term 2 ppm75Se exposure. Inherent Se controls both the extent and the nature of distribution of mitochondrial75Se incorporation. Uptake of45Ca by the insect mitochondria was enhanced by dietary Se up to 2 ppm but was unaffected by addition ofin vitro 75Se in the medium. A more fundamental role for Se in the mitochondrial energy metabolism emerges from these studies.
TL;DR: In seedlings grown with supplemented Se, enhanced respiratory control ratio and succinate dehydrogenase activity were observed in the mitochondria of tissues, indicative of a role for Se in mitochondrial membrane functions.
Abstract: The metabolic significance of Se in plants is not well documented, though the presence of many selenoenzymes in bacteria and the essentiality of Se in higher animals is established. Since germination is an active process in plant growth and metabolism, the effect of Se was investigated in germinatingVigna radiata L, a nonaccumulating Sedeficient legume. Growth and protein were enhanced in seedlings supplemented with selenium (Se) as sodium selenite in the medium up to 1 μg/mL. The pattern of uptake of75Se in the differentiating tissues and the subcellular distribution were investigated. The percentage of incorporation of75Se was greater in the mitochondria at the lowest level (0.5 μg/mL) of Se supplementation compared to higher levels of Se exposure. Proteins precipitated from the postmitochondrial supernatant fractions, when separated by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), indicated a major selenoprotein in the seedlings germinated at 2.0 μg/mL Se. In seedlings grown with supplemented Se, enhanced respiratory control ratio and succinate dehydrogenase activity were observed in the mitochondria of tissues, indicative of a role for Se in mitochondrial membrane functions.
TL;DR: This review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants in protecting plants from stress caused by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.
Abstract: The contamination of soils and water with metals has created a major environmental problem, leading to considerable losses in plant productivity and hazardous health effects. Exposure to toxic metals can intensify the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are continuously produced in both unstressed and stressed plants cells. Some of the ROS species are highly toxic and must be detoxified by cellular stress responses, if the plant is to survive and grow. The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants in protecting plants from stress caused by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.
TL;DR: There is sufficient evidence to support a large-scale trial of dietary micronutrient supplementation in HF, and Carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and creatine supplementation have resulted in improved exercise capacity in patients with HF in some studies.
Abstract: Heart failure (HF) is associated with weight loss, and cachexia is a well-recognized complication. Patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and lose muscle bulk early in the course of the disease. Basal metabolic rate is increased in HF, but general malnutrition may play a part in the development of cachexia, particularly in an elderly population. There is evidence for a possible role for micronutrient deficiency in HF. Selective deficiency of selenium, calcium and thiamine can directly lead to the HF syndrome. Other nutrients, particularly vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, are antioxidants and may have a protective effect on the vasculature. Vitamins B6, B12 and folate all tend to reduce levels of homocysteine, which is associated with increased oxidative stress. Carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and creatine supplementation have resulted in improved exercise capacity in patients with HF in some studies. In this article, we review the relation between micronutrients and HF. Chronic HF is characterized by high mortality and morbidity, and research effort has centered on pharmacological management, with the successful introduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-adrenergic antagonists into routine practice. There is sufficient evidence to support a large-scale trial of dietary micronutrient supplementation in HF.
TL;DR: The results suggest that Se is an antioxidant or it activates protective mechanisms, which can alleviate oxidative stress in the chloroplasts, and improve the recovery of chlorophyll content following light stress.
Abstract: Higher plants are considered not to require selenium (Se). However, it has recently been shown that Se increases the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). This research was undertaken to investigate the antioxidative properties of Se during photooxidative stress in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and to determine the defence mechanisms. Potato plants were exposed to 600 μmol/m2/s light intensity at low temperature (4 °C) or paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. The stress responses were monitored by measuring chlorophyll content and following changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane ion leakage. Moreover, the effects of Se on the transcript levels of chloroplast CuZnSOD, mitochondrial MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and psbA were analyzed using northern hybridization. Se supplementation improved the recovery of chlorophyll content following light stress. After prolonged exposure to light, the reduction of Fv/Fm was slightly lower compared with plants cultivated without additional Se. The photosynthesis of Se treated plants was somewhat more tolerant of paraquat and the integrity of membranes was improved during oxidative stress. Se altered transcript accumulation of chloroplast CuZnSOD and GPX but the MnSOD and psbA transcript levels were unaffected. The results suggest that Se is an antioxidant or it activates protective mechanisms, which can alleviate oxidative stress in the chloroplasts.
TL;DR: Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production and the Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is essential for humans and animals but is not considered to be essential for higher plants. Although researchers have found increases in vegetative growth due to fertiliser Se, there has been no definitive evidence to date of increased reproductive capacity, in terms of seed production and seed viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate seed production and growth responses to a low dose of Se (as sodium selenite, added to solution culture) compared to very low-Se controls in fast-cycling Brassica rapa L. Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production. The Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production. This study provides additional evidence for a beneficial role for Se in higher plants.
TL;DR: In this article, the complementary role of selenium and sulfur specific chromatographic detection by HPLC with interfaced inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection and by derivatization GC with interfacing atomic spectral emission was investigated.
Abstract: Selenium-accumulating plants such as Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) concentrate the element in plant shoots and roots. Such behavior may provide a cost-effective technology to clean up contaminated soils and waters that pose major environmental and human health problems (phytoremediation). Such ability to transform selenium into bioactive compounds has important implications for human nutrition and health. Element selective characterization of B. juncea grown in the presence of inorganic selenium under hydroponic conditions provides valuable information to better understand selenium metabolism in plants. The present work determines both previously observed organoselenium species such as selenomethionine and Se-methylselenocysteine and for the first time detects the newly characterized S-(methylseleno)cysteine in plant shoots and roots when grown in the presence of selenate or selenite as the only selenium source. A key feature of this study is the complementary role of selenium and sulfur specific chromatographic detection by HPLC with interfaced inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection and by derivatization GC with interfaced atomic spectral emission. HPLC–ICP-MS limits of detection for such species were in the range 5–50 ng Se mL −1 in the injected extracts. Speciation profiles are compared with those of selenium-enriched yeast by both HPLC–ICP-MS and GC–AED.