Showing papers in "Biological Trace Element Research in 1999"
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method to predict the behavior of potentially toxic trace metals in coal during coal cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching using information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals in coal.
Abstract: Trace elements can have profound adverse effects on the health of people burning coal in homes or living near coal deposits, coal mines, and coal-burning power plants. Trace elements such as arsenic emitted from coal-burning power plants in Europe and Asia have been shown to cause severe health problems. Perhaps the most widespread health problems are caused by domestic coal combustion in developing countries where millions of people suffer from fluorosis and thousands from arsenism. Better knowledge of coal quality characteristics may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals in coal may help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during coal cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.
TL;DR: Methodology with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of total arsenic in nails suggested that washing once with 1% Triton Χ-100 for 20 min for cleaning nail samples prior to ICP-MS analysis is satisfactory and there was no significant difference among the various sample preparation techniques.
Abstract: The analysis of trace elements in biological samples will extend our understanding of the impact that environmental exposure to these elements has on human health. Measuring arsenic content in nails has proven useful in studies evaluating the chronic body burden of arsenic. In this study, we developed methodology with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of total arsenic in nails. We assessed the utility of the washing procedures for removing surface contamination. Four types of preanalysis treatments (water bath, sonication, water bath plus sonication, and control) after sample decomposition by nitric acid were compared to evaluate the digestion efficiencies. In addition, we studied the stability of the solution over 1 wk and the effect of acidity on the arsenic signal. Arsenic content in the digested solution was analyzed by using Ar-N2 plasma with Te as the internal standard. The results suggest that washing once with 1% Triton Χ-100 for 20 min for cleaning nail samples prior to ICP-MS analysis is satisfactory. Repeated measurement analysis of variance revealed that there was no significant difference among the various sample preparation techniques. Moreover, the measurements were reproducible within 1 wk, and acidity seemed to have no substantial influence on the arsenic signal. A limit of detection (on the basis of three times the standard deviation of the blank measurement) of 7 ng As/g toenail was achieved with this system, and arsenic recoveries from reference materials (human hair and nails) were in good agreement (95–106% recovery) with the certified/reference values of the standard reference materials. ICP-MS offers high accuracy and precision, as well as highthroughput capacity in the analysis of total arsenic in nail samples.
TL;DR: These different antidepressant therapies induced an elevation of the hippocampal zinc concentration, which indicates a significant role of zinc in the mechanism of antidepressant therapy.
Abstract: We have studied the effect of chronic treatment with imipramine, citalopram and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on serum and brain zinc levels in rats. Chronic treatment with citalopram (but not with imipramine or ECS) significantly (approx 20%) increased the serum zinc level. Chronic treatment with both drugs slightly (by approx 10%) increase the zinc level in the hippocampus and slightly decreased it in the cortex, cerebellum and basal forebrain. Calculation of the ratio hippocampus/brain region within each group demonstrated a significantly (approx 20%) higher value after treatment with either imipramine or citalopram. Moreover, chronic ECS induced a significant increase (by 30%) in the zinc level in the hippocampus and also a slight increase (by 11–15%) in the other brain regions. Thus, these different antidepressant therapies induced an elevation of the hippocampal zinc concentration, which indicates a significant role of zinc in the mechanism of antidepressant therapy.
TL;DR: The tissues of the newly hatched chick showed distinctive features in fatty acid profiles, antioxidant accumulation, and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, and it was suggested that in postnatal development, antioxidant enzymes presumably play the major role in antioxidant protection of the chick tissues.
Abstract: The hatching process is characterized by a range of adaptive changes, and a newly hatched chick is considered as an intermediate stage between prenatal and postnatal development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristic relationships between tissue-specific fatty acid composition and antioxidant protection in newly hatched chicks. Liver, yolk sac membrane, heart, kidney, lung, and four brain regions (cerebrum, cerebellum, stem, and optic lobes) were collected. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phosphoglycerides, α-tocopherol, lutein, ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and the activities of Mn-and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Se-dependent and non-Se-glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were determined. The levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn as well as tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation were also studied. The tissues of the newly hatched chick showed distinctive features in fatty acid profiles, antioxidant accumulation, and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. The brain clearly displayed the greatest susceptibility to spontaneous and Fe-stimulated lipid peroxidation, was highly unsaturated and contained very low levels of vitamin E, no detectable carotenoids, low GSH-Px, and low CAT activity. At the same time, the brain was characterized by high ascorbic acid concentration and comparatively high SOD activity. It was suggested that in postnatal development, antioxidant enzymes presumably play the major role in antioxidant protection of the chick tissues.
TL;DR: Molybdenum in both PRT and FT milk showed a definite decrease with time, suggesting that the Mo content in milk is homeostatically regulated, and Ce, La, Ba, and Sn did not display any pattern indicative of biological regulation and potential human requirement.
Abstract: To examine longitudinal and gestational effects of mineral content in human milk, we analyzed human milk from lactating mothers of premature (PRT, n = 24, 2500 g, 39-41 wk gestation), living in Newfoundland, Canada. Samples were collected once a week for 8 wk with one final sample collected at 3 mo. Milk samples collected in acid-washed containers were wet ashed with concentrated HNO3, and barium, cadmium, calcium, cesium, cobalt, copper, cerium, lanthanum, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, tin, strontium, and zinc were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using standard multiple-regression procedures with correlated data analyses to take account of the relationship between successive weeks. Results indicated lower Ca and Pb in PRT milk. Calcium was the only nutritionally significant element to differ between groups. Molybdenum in both PRT and FT milk showed a definite decrease with time, suggesting that the Mo content in milk is homeostatically regulated. However, Ce, La, Ba, and Sn did not display any pattern indicative of biological regulation and potential human requirement.
TL;DR: Findings provide additional evidence that lipid peroxidation can be a mechanistic component of ciguatera toxicity in the Caribbean barracuda.
Abstract: Human consumption of over 400 species of tropical fish containing polyether toxins (e.g. ciguatoxins, maitotoxins) causes ciguatera fish poisoning. The Caribbean barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda) is one of the most potent ciguatoxic fish. The objective of this study was to determine whether toxicity of 14 barracuda livers was correlated with lipid peroxidation. A significant correlation (p = 0.015, Pearson’s correlation) between lipid peroxidation and toxicity of barracuda liver was found. Because iron and copper are well-known catalysts of hydroxyl radical production and lipid peroxidation in biological systems, the correlation between the concentrations of these metals in barracuda liver and lipid peroxidation and toxicity was also investigated. Cadmium was significantly correlated (p = 0.014) with the toxicity of barracuda livers. This study provides the first data concerning the concentration of iron, copper, and cadmium in the liver of the Caribbean barracuda. Of the three metals studied in barracuda liver, iron was the most abundant, followed by copper and cadmium. Lipid peroxidation was highly variable and detected in five (36%) of the liver samples. Lipid peroxidation was not statistically significantly correlated (p > 0.05) with concentrations of iron, copper, and cadmium in barracuda liver. Collectively, these findings provide additional evidence that lipid peroxidation can be a mechanistic component of ciguatera toxicity in the Caribbean barracuda.
TL;DR: Data show for the first time in normal cutaneous cultured cells that UVA1 radiation induces apoptosis, and this apoptosis is biphasic and appears higher 18 h after the stress.
Abstract: Ultraviolet Al (UVA1) radiation generates reactive oxygen species and the oxidative stress is known as a mediator of DNA damage and of apoptosis. We exposed cultured human cutaneous fibroblasts to UVA1 radiation (wavelengths in the 340–450-nm range with emission peak at 365 nm) and, using the alkaline unwinding method, we showed an immediate significant increase of DNA strand breaks in exposed cells. Apoptosis was determined by detecting cytoplasmic nucleosomes (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method) at different time points in fibroblasts exposed to different irradiation doses. In our conditions, UVA1 radiation induced an early (8 h) and a delayed (18 h) apoptosis. Delayed apoptosis increased in a UVA dosedependent manner. Zinc is an important metal for DNA protection and has been shown to have inhibitory effects on apoptosis. The addition of zinc (6.5 mg/L) as zinc chloride to the culture medium significantly decreased immediate DNA strand breaks in human skin fibroblasts. Moreover, zinc chloride significantly decreased UVA1-induced early and delayed apoptosis. Thus, these data show for the first time in normal cutaneous cultured cells that UVA1 radiation induces apoptosis. This apoptosis is biphasic and appears higher 18 h after the stress. Zinc supplementation can prevent both immediate DNA strand breakage and early and delayed apoptosis, suggesting that this metal could be of interest for skin cell protection against UVA1 irradiation.
TL;DR: Umbilical cord serum concentrations of the essential elements Ca, Co, Cu, and Mg and of the nonessential and toxic elements Ba, Be, Li, Pb, and Sb were elevated compared to the elemental concentrations in the sera of infants and adults.
Abstract: Concentrations of trace elements in newborns, infants, and adults may be significantly different from each other. Serum trace element reference ranges for different age groups are of value for diagnostic purposes. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of the 21 trace elements Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, and Zn in a total of 117 sera of individuals representing different age groups. After microwave-assisted acid digestion with high-purity reagents, 20 umbilical cord sera, 5 sera of fully breast-fed infants, 6 sera of formula-fed infants, 66 sera of patients suffering internal diseases, and 20 sera of healthy blood donors were analyzed for trace elements. One serum and two whole-blood reference materials were analyzed for quality control. Experimental concentrations were in good agreement with certified values. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of the essential elements Ca, Co, Cu, and Mg and of the nonessential and toxic elements Ba, Be, Li, Pb, and Sb were elevated compared to the elemental concentrations in the sera of infants and adults. Serum levels of Ba, Ca, Co, Mn, Pb, and Sb of infants were much higher and serum Cu was significantly lower than in adults. Serum Cu increased significantly with age (newborns: 353 Μg/L; infants: 755 Μg/L; healthy adults: 810 Μg/L), whereas for other trace elements no age-dependence could be established.
TL;DR: Analysis of the sequences of multiple viral isolates reveals conservation of the putative GPx-related features, at least within viral subtypes or genotypes, supporting the hypothesis that these are functional GPx modules.
Abstract: Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the prototypical eukaryotic selenoprotein, with the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) at the enzyme active site, encoded by the UGA codon in RNA. A DNA virus,Molluscum contagiosum, has now been shown to encode a functional selenium-dependent GPx enzyme. Using modifications of conventional sequence database searching techniques to locate potential viral GPx modules, combined with structurally guided comparative sequence analysis, we provide compelling evidence that Se-dependent GPx modules are encoded in a number of RNA viruses, including potentially serious human pathogens like HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus, coxsackievirus B3, HIV-2, and measles virus. Analysis of the sequences of multiple viral isolates reveals conservation of the putative GPx-related features, at least within viral subtypes or genotypes, supporting the hypothesis that these are functional GPx modules.
TL;DR: Zinc supplementation to the diet in hypozincemic Down children is suggested as a simple and useful therapeutic tool.
Abstract: In subjects affected by trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), hypothyroidism is the most common endocrinological deficit. Plasma zinc levels, which are commonly detected below the normal range in Down patients, are related to some endocrinological and immunological functions; in fact, zinc deficiency has been shown to impair immune response and growth rate. Aims of this study were to evaluate (1) the role of zinc deficiency in subclinical hypothyroidism and (2) thyroid function changes in Down children cyclically supplemented with zinc sulfate. Inverse correlations have been observed between age and triiodotironine (T3) and between zinc and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); higher TSH levels have been found in hypozincemic patients at the beginning of the study. After 6 mo of supplementation, an improvement of thyroid function (TSH levels: 3.96 +/- 1.84 vs 2.64 +/- 1.33 mUI/mL basally and after 6 mo, respectively) was observed in hypozincemic patients. In the second cycle of supplementation, a similar trend of TSH was observed. At the end of the study, TSH significantly decreased in treated hypozincemic subjects (4.48 +/- 1.93 vs 2.96 +/- 1.20 mUI/mL) and it was no longer different in comparison to normozincemic patients. We suggest zinc supplementation to the diet in hypozincemic Down children as a simple and useful therapeutic tool.
TL;DR: Normalization of these latter responses to tibial DNA content yield data indicating that the effect of zinc on bone formation results from a zinc-induced increase in bone cell proliferation.
Abstract: Zinc deficiency is associated with a reduced rate of bone formation that can be corrected by supplementation of the deficient diet with adequate amounts of zinc. This study was conducted to examine the effects of zinc on bone cell parameters associated with bone formation. Tibiae were removed from 19-d-old chicken embryos and incubated for 48 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with antibiotics, bovine serum albumin, and HEPES. The addition of zinc (25-200 g/dL) to tibial cultures resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, an increase in the incorporation of proline into bone protein and an increase in the post-translational oxidation of proline to peptidyl hydroxyproline. These effects of zinc were all diminished by the addition of 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid, a chelator of zinc. The addition of either cycloheximide (10(-5)M), dactinomycin (10(-8)M), or hydroxyurea (10(-3)M) to tibial cultures also attenuated the effects of zinc. The effect of zinc on bone cell DNA synthesis was measured by following the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA and by fluorometric measurement of cellular DNA content. These methods revealed that the addition of zinc to cultured tibiae resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in tibial DNA content and synthesis rate. The magnitude of the zinc-induced DNA increase was similar to the magnitude of the zinc-induced increases in alkaline phosphatase activity, proline incorporation, and hydroxyproline synthesis. Normalization of these latter responses to tibial DNA content yield data indicating that the effect of zinc on bone formation results from a zinc-induced increase in bone cell proliferation.
TL;DR: Plasma and erythrocyte Mg levels of the RA patients showed slight and statistically insignificant reductions when compared to controls, and in RA patients, there were positive correlations between ery Throcyte SOD activity and Mg level.
Abstract: It has been suggested that reactive oxygen metabolites and trace elements play some role in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to exert an important protective role against oxygen toxicity. The aim of the study was to investigate the probable changes in the levels of trace elements and SOD activity in RA. Plasma and erythrocyte copper, zinc, and magnesium levels and erythrocyte SOD activity were measured in groups of controls and RA cases. Significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity was found in RA patients in comparison with controls (p 0.05). In RA patients, there were positive correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and Mg level (r = 0.4345, p < 0.01) and between erythrocyte Zn level and plasma Cu level (r = 0.4132, p < 0.01). There were negative correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and plasma Zn level (r = -0.3605, p < 0.05) and between plasma Zn level and erythrocyte Cu level (r = -0.4578, p < 0.01) in RA patients.
TL;DR: It is suggested that EC-SOD activity may be a functional indicator of zinc nutritional status in humans and suggest that serum extracellular superoxide dimutase activity can be used as afunctional indicator of marginal zinc deficiency in humans.
Abstract: The present study focused on whether serum extracellular superoxide dimutase (EC-SOD) activity can be used as a functional indicator of marginal zinc deficiency in humans. Subjects in this study were 444 healthy adults over 30 yr of age living a normal rural life in Kyunggi province, Korea. The mean dietary zinc intake of subjects obtained from one 24-h recall was 6.41 +/- 4.35 mg and the average serum zinc concentration of the subjects was 11.06 +/- 2.44 micromol/L. Subjects were divided into three groups by serum zinc concentrations: adequate (serum zinc >10.7 micromol/L), low (serum zinc 9.0-10.7 micromol/L), and very low (serum zinc <9.0 micromol/L) groups. A total of 50 subjects were selected from the three groups for analysis of EC-SOD activities. The EC-SOD activity of subjects increased with increasing serum zinc concentrations, and the activities of the three groups were significantly different as indicated by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.0239). Also, serum EC-SOD activities were significantly correlated with serum zinc concentrations (r = 0.289, p = 0.04). Serum EC-SOD activities, however, were not significantly correlated to the dietary zinc intakes. In conclusion, these results show that EC-SOD activities are decreased in subjects with low serum zinc concentrations and suggest that EC-SOD activity may be a functional indicator of zinc nutritional status in humans.
TL;DR: The laboratory has purified and characterized these enzymes in order to understand the mechanisms and elucidate the variations of the responses to arsenate /arsenite challenge.
Abstract: Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in mammals is catalyzed by three serial enzyme activities: arsenate reductase, arsenite methyltransferase, and monomethylarsonate methyltransferase. Our laboratory has purified and characterized these enzymes in order to understand the mechanisms and elucidate the variations of the responses to arsenate/arsenite challenge. Our results indicate a marked deficiency and diversity of these enzyme activities in various animal species.
TL;DR: The study revealed that age-related changes of calcium contents in the ADs of TMJs were similar to those in women’s pubic symphyses, but not those in intervertebral disks and menisci.
Abstract: To elucidate compositional changes of the articular disk (AD) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by aging, elements of the ADs resected from 18 cadavers were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry. It was found that calcium contents of ADs in TMJs increased progressively with aging, whereas the sulfur contents of the ADs decreased slightly with aging. Regarding the content of phosphorus, the contents increased progressively with aging. The study revealed that age-related changes of calcium contents in the ADs of TMJs were similar to those in women's pubic symphyses, but not those in intervertebral disks and menisci.
TL;DR: It was found in both the ACLs and LCFs that the content of phosphorus was higher in women’s ligaments than in men”s, and the common finding that thecontent of phosphorus increased with aging, but the Content of iron decreased, was obtained in the ACL and LCF.
Abstract: To elucidate compositional changes of human ligaments by aging, the content of elements in anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) and ligamenta capitum femorum (LCFs) was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The subjects consisted of 11 men and 7 women, ranging from 59 to 91 yr of age. With regard to the content of elements, the content of sulfur and iron was significantly higher in the LCFs than in the ACLs. It was found in the ACLs that the content of sulfur decreased gradually with aging, whereas the content of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium increased progressively with aging. On the other hand, it was found in the LCFs that the content of magnesium decreased gradually with aging, where as the content of phosphorus increased progressively with aging. The common finding that the content of phosphorus increased with aging, but the content of iron decreased, was obtained in the ACL and LCF. Regarding sexual difference, it was found in both the ACLs and LCFs that the content of phosphorus was higher in women's ligaments than in men's.
TL;DR: It was found that an extremely high accumulation of calcium and phosphorus occurred in the common iliac artery at old age, being higher than that of the internal and external iliAC arteries.
Abstract: To elucidate accumulation of minerals in human iliac arteries with aging, the content of minerals was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Bilateral common, internal, and external iliac arteries of 16 men and 8 women, ranging ages from 65 to 93 yr, were examined. It was found that an extremely high accumulation of calcium and phosphorus occurred in the common iliac artery at old age, being higher than that of the internal and external iliac arteries. It should be noted that the accumulation of calcium and phosphorus is the highest in the common iliac artery among the human arteries examined to date. Regarding sexual differences, the content of calcium and phosphorus in the common and internal iliac arteries was higher in women than in men, whereas their content in the external iliac artery was lower in women than in men.
TL;DR: The results from these experiments indicate that vitamins C and E and selenium can protect the lens against oxidative damage, but the effect of vitamin C appears to be much greater than that of vitamin E and Selenium.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine the protective effects of intraperitoneally administered vitamins C and E and selenium on the lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (rGSH) activities in the lens of rats induced diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ). Lenses in the diabetic control group had a slightly higher mean level of MDA compared with lenses of the vitamin E and selenium groups, although the mean levels of MDA were significantly lower in control, combination, and vitamin C groups than in the diabetic control group (p < 0.05 andp < 0.01). However, MDA levels were significantly lower in vitamin C, vitamin E, and combination groups than in controls (p < 0.01).
TL;DR: The results indicate that the strain of rat as well as the anatomical brain region should be taken into account in MT and metal distribution studies, and suggests a role for other proteins in addition to MT in the homeostatic control of zinc and copper.
Abstract: The regional brain distribution of metallothionein (MT), zinc, and copper in the brain was determined in nine anatomical regions (olfactory bulb, cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus plus hypothalamus, pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebellum, midbrain, and white matter) and was compared between two different strains of rat (Sprague-Dawley [SD] and Lewis) No significant difference was observed in the whole-brain MT level between the two strains (178 ± 34 μg/g in SD rats and 203 ± 23 μg/g in Lewis rats) In SD rats, however, MT was more highly expressed in the white matter than in the other regions studied In contrast, MT concentration was highest in the cortex and lowest in the olfactory bulb in Lewis rats The MT levels in the cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus plus hypothalamus were significantly lower in SD rats than in Lewis rats In both strains, the olfactory bulb contained markedly higher levels of both zinc and copper than the other regions (279 ±68 μg/g zinc in SD rats and 276 ± 69 μg/g zinc in Lewis rats, and 52 ± 15 μg/g copper in SD rats and 111 ± 48 μg/g copper in Lewis rats) The next high-est zinc levels were seen in the hippocampus, whereas the next highest copper levels were in the corpus striatum in both SD and Lewis rats The high levels of zinc and copper in the olfactory bulb were not accompanied by concomitant high MT concentrations These results indicate that the strain of rat as well as the anatomical brain region should be taken into account in MT and metal distribution studies However, the highest concentrations of zinc and copper in olfactory bulb were common to both SD and Lewis rats The discrepancy between MT and the metal levels in olfactory bulb suggests a role for other proteins in addition to MT in the homeostatic control of zinc and copper
TL;DR: The morphologic and chemical analysis data provide information on the pathogenesis of ferrous sulfate poisoning; the vascular iron deposition may be related to subsequent hemorrhage in the liver the periportal necrosis is probably a direct cytopathic effect of the highest levels of iron carried to these cells by the portal blood flow.
Abstract: Ferrous sulfate is the leading cause of accidental pediatric poisonings. Despite the requirement for child-resistant packaging for any oral iron product with 250 mg or more per container, the incidence has continued to increase. Although the clinical presentation of iron toxicity has been well described, pathologic findings in human tissue and correlation with clinical data are scant. We reviewed autopsies from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology of 11 children who died from ferrous sulfate toxicity. Clinical data, morphologic changes, and iron levels in tissue were evaluated. The children’s ages ranged from 11 to 36 mo. Prominent iron deposition in gastric and small intestinal mucosa was associated with necrosis, with some cases demonstrating prominent vascular iron deposition. The clinical courses were rapid and progressed from Stage I to Stage III. These observations were correlated with increased levels of iron in various tissues, as determined by analytical atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The morphologic and chemical analysis data provide information on the pathogenesis of ferrous sulfate poisoning; the vascular iron deposition may be related to subsequent hemorrhage. In the liver the periportal necrosis is probably a direct cytopathic effect of the highest levels of iron carried to these cells by the portal blood flow.
TL;DR: It is shown that a moderate iodine deficiency exists in both patients with endemic goiter and control subjects, which indicates the important role of iodine deficiency in the etiopathogenesis of endemicGoiter in Turkey.
Abstract: Although endemic goiter has been shown to have a high prevalence in Turkey, little is known about the concentration of urinary iodine, plasma selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in these patients. We studied on 140 male patient with endemic goiter (mean age: 22.2 +/- 0.19 yr) and 140 healthy male subjects (mean age: 21.8 +/- 0.28 yr). Daily urinary iodine excretion was determined by the ionometric method. Plasma Se, Zn, and Cu were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Daily urinary iodine excretion was found to be significantly lower in the patient group (38.7 +/- 2.26 microg/d) than that of controls (50.73 +/- 2.56 microg/day, p = 0.001). Plasma Zn concentrations were also found to be significantly lower in the patient group (1.04 +/- 0.03 microg/mL) than that of controls (1.16 +/- 0.02 microg/mL, p = 0.001). No significant difference was determined in Se and Cu concentrations between the patient and control groups. Our study shows that a moderate iodine deficiency exists in both patients with endemic goiter and control subjects, which indicates the important role of iodine deficiency in the etiopathogenesis of endemic goiter in Turkey. Zinc deficiency may also contribute to the pathogenesis of endemic goiter. However, Se and Cu do not seem to have any role in the etiopathogenesis of endemic goiter in Turkey. A community-based iodine fortification program throughout the country may be proposed to take over the problem, which also can prevent the contributing effects of other element deficiencies that occur when iodine deficiency is the prevailing factor.
TL;DR: La3+ increased the tolerance ability of plant to osmotic stress, which could assure the function of membrane normal temporally after stressed and protected the membrane from injury of free radicals.
Abstract: The physiological effects of the rare earth ion La3+ on the peroxidation of membrane lipids in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling leaves under osmotic stress were determined. With the passage of time under osmotic stress, the inhibition ability of lanthanum ions to the relative membrane permeability and concentration of malondialdehyde, Superoxide radicals, and hydrogen peroxide caused by osmotic stress increased substantially, but no changes were noted in ferrous and relative water content. It indicated that lanthanum ions could not retain the water content because of osmotic stress. However, La3+ appears to decrease the production of OH by reducing the content of O2 and H2O2 of Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions, which efficiently alleviated peroxidation of membrane lipids under osmotic stress and, to some degree, protected the membrane from injury of free radicals. Thus, La3+ increased the tolerance ability of plant to osmotic stress, which could assure the function of membrane normal temporally after stressed.
TL;DR: Results from this study indicate that trace element concentrations in fish tissues vary with age and life cycle and (2) trace element requirements may vary in function of age andlife cycle.
Abstract: Four groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were fed diets with additional metal contents: a basal diet (diet A) contained Zn at 60.9 ± 1.9 mg/kg diet, Cu at 3.9 ± 0.9 mg/kg diet, and Fe at 138.3 ± 6.8 mg/kg diet; the other diets were supplemented with copper (20 mg/kg, diet B), iron (100 mg/kg, diet C), or zinc (300 mg/kg, diet D). Two consecutive year-classes (0+ and 1+ age fish) from the same parent stock were examined. Several fish tissues were analyzed for metal contents in five different periods of each year in order to determine (1) the sensitivity of certain tissues as indicators of trace element metabolism and (2) possible seasonal variations. Growth data were similar for gilthead sea bream fed the basal diet and the metal-fortified diets. Mineral concentrations in tissues were found to be little affected by the dietary supplementation of trace elements, suggesting an efficient homeostatic control of these three metal concentrations. Tissues involved in metal metabolism (e.g., liver, kidney, gills) presented greater variations between minimum and maximum values with respect to other tissues (e.g., brain, muscle, eye). Seasonal variations were observed during the 2 yr of this study and were especially evident for zinc and copper concentrations in the liver. The overall pattern of metal variations showed a decreasing trend during the 2 yr. Results from this study indicate that (1) trace element concentrations in fish tissues vary with age and life cycle and (2) trace element requirements may vary in function of age and life cycle.
TL;DR: Plasma levels of some enzymes and metabolites were significantly increased in the enflurane anesthesia of rats, whereas the liver vitamin E levels were slightly decreased, and the effect of selenium appears to be much greater than the vitamin E.
Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to determine levels of liver vitamins A and E and blood biochemical and hematological parameters in the enflurane anesthesia of rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first and second groups were used as the control and anesthesia control groups, respectively, and only the placebo was intraperitoneally injected. The third group was intraperitoneally administered with vitamin E (dl/-α-tocopheryl acetate, 100 mg/kg body weight), the fourth group with Se (Na2SeO3 1.5 mg/kg body weight), and the fifth group with vitamin E and Se (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, 100 mg/kg body weight + Na2SeO3 1.5 mg/kg body weight). This administration was done for three times with overday intervals and the second, third, forth, and fifth group rats were taken to enflurane anesthetise for 2 h.
TL;DR: A deficiency of calcium was observed in subjects in the last trimester of gestation, reinforcing the importance of supplementation with calcium during pregnancy.
Abstract: The hair and serum levels of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc levels were measured in a group of 70 healthy pregnant women and in 66 age-matched healthy controls living in the Tianjin city of the People’s Republic of China. The study subjects were classified into three subgroups according to gestational age. The hair concentrations were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, whereas those in sera were established by atomic absorption spectrometry. The hair concentrations of Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the three groups of gravida were lower or significantly lower than those in controls. In sera, the differences did not show statistical significance in most cases. A deficiency of calcium was observed in subjects in the last trimester of gestation. This reinforces the importance of supplementation with calcium during pregnancy.
TL;DR: The results of this study highlight some of the distinct changes occurring in the metabolism of zinc, copper, and iron in both maternal and fetal tissues and fluids during gestation in the pig.
Abstract: Zinc, copper, and iron levels in maternal and fetal pig tissues and fluids were measured starting on d 30 of gestation and continuing to term (d 114) at 10-d intervals. Fetal hematocrit increased from a low of 19% on d 30 to 32% by d 50, after which it remained above 30% to term. Amniotic fluid zinc, copper, and iron all reached maximal levels by d 60 of gestation. Maternal serum zinc levels fluctuated little during gestation, but fetal serum zinc concentration was significantly elevated above maternal levels during the second trimester. Fetal serum copper levels were significantly lower than maternal values throughout gestation and this was also the case for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity. Maternal serum iron reached its lowest level by d 80 of gestation when rate of transfer of iron to the developing fetuses was high. Fetal serum iron declined throughout gestation, reaching its lowest level on d 100. In general, fetal liver concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron were higher than the corresponding maternal values throughout gestation. Distinct increases were noted for fetal hepatic zinc and copper concentrations during the second trimester of pregnancy and these were accompanied by increases in cytosolic and metallothionein-bound zinc and copper levels. Maternal hepatic iron declined during the second trimester, reaching its lowest point on d 80, indicative of the shunting of maternal iron reserves to fetal tissues. Fetal kidney metal levels did not demonstrate any distinctive developmental patterns with respect to zinc, copper, or iron concentrations, but a general accumulation of each metal was observed as gestation progressed. The results of this study highlight some of the distinct changes occurring in the metabolism of zinc, copper, and iron in both maternal and fetal tissues and fluids during gestation in the pig.
TL;DR: Although zein and L-methionine were the most favorable treatments enhancing Se volatilization, all six soils responded differently to the soil amendments.
Abstract: Selenium (Se), an element found naturally in a variety of soils, can accumulate in drainage water of lands under intensive irrigation, even reaching levels that are toxic to mammals and birds. Volatilization of Se by soil microorganisms into dimethylselenide (DMSe) can be enhanced by certain soil amendments and, thus, be used as a soil remediation process. In an 8-wk laboratory study, five soils from California and one from Germany were spiked with75SeO3 2- (22.3 mg/kg Se). Two amino acids (DL-homocysteine and L-methionine), a carbohydrate (pectin), and a protein (zein) were tested as soil amendments. Gaseous75Se emissions were trapped with activated carbon and measured in a gamma counter. Depending on soil type, the cumulative volatilization from the control flasks varied between 1.2% and 9.0% of applied75Se. Both zein and L-methionine strongly increased volatilization (max. 43% of75Se applied), whereas DL-homocysteine had a much smaller stimulating effect. Pectin showed a moderate effect, but enhanced Se volatilization rates were sustained much longer when compared to the zein amendment. Volatilization rates of Se followed a simple first-order reaction. Gaseous Se emission in the soils treated with L-methionine yielded an S-shaped curve, which fit a growth-modified first-order rate model. Although zein and L-methionine were the most favorable treatments enhancing Se volatilization, all six soils responded differently to the soil amendments.
TL;DR: The mechanisms participating in the Mn movements through the monolayer are discussed and proposed to be in common, at least partly, with other divalent cations such as calcium, zinc, or iron.
Abstract: The uptake and transport kinetics of manganese (Mn) were investigated in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line both from the absorption side (apical to basolateral) and from the exsorption side (basolateral to apical). With regard to the former, transport versus time revealed (as uptake) a biphasic pattern with an initial transient phase followed by steady-state conditions. Uptake versus Mn concentrations showed saturation-type kinetics with a 100% increase of Mn binding capacity when measurements were made from 0.5 to 2 h of incubation. The transport characteristics in steady-state conditions exhibited two components, saturable (Vmax = 3.70 ± 0.07 nmol/cm2/h, Km = 32.2 ± 3.4 μM) and nonsaturable (slope = [1.4 ± 0.2] x 10-6 cm-2/h) usually presumed to reflect transcellular (carrier mediated) and paracellular (diffusional) pathways, respectively. Mn fluxes were decreased by calcium and calcium antagonists, almost 100% inhibited at 4°C, and affected by quinacrine and ouabain. The inhibition of ATP synthesis was apparently ineffective. From the exsorption side, the Mn fluxes, without a transient period, had an approx 20-fold smaller rate than in the absorptive direction and showed mainly a nonsaturable route (slope = [0.6 ± 0.1] x 10-6 cm-2/h). The mechanisms participating in the Mn movements through the monolayer are discussed and proposed to be in common, at least partly, with other divalent cations such as calcium, zinc, or iron.
TL;DR: The results including the differential response of GR activity to Se or mimosine supplementation are reflective of an effective reductive environment in Se groups and increased turnover of GSH in the presence of Mimosine.
Abstract: Actaptive alterations in glutathione (GSH) metabolism were studied during oxidative stress induced by selenium (Se) deficiency in germinating seedlings ofTrigonella foenum- graecum grown for 72 h and the response to supplementation individually of Se or mimosine was explored. Growth enhancement with improved mitochondrial efficiency was elicited by supplementation of Se at 0.5-0.75 ppm or mimosine at 0.1-0.2 mM. Total thiol and protein levels of mitochondrial and soluble fractions, in general, did not vary significantly with supplementation of either Se or mimosine except that the mitochondrial protein levels in mimosine groups (0.1-0.2 mM) decreased by 20–30%. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased by twofold in activity toward H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), and t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in Se groups, and by 50–60% increase toward H2O2 and CHP but by a twofold enhancement in enzyme activity with tBHP in mimosine groups. Soluble GSH-Px activity increased by 30–40% only in mimosine groups and remained unaltered in Se groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) in the soluble fraction of both Se and mimosine groups increased dramatically by fivefold to sixfold. Distinct differences were noted in the response of the stressed seedlings toward exposure to Se or mimosine and included a decline in glutathione reductase (GR) activity by 50–60% in both mitochondria and soluble fractions of Se groups and an increase in GR activity of the mitochondria by twofold and of the soluble enzyme activity by 30% in the mimosine groups. Mimosine exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, but, in contrast, a significant enhancement by 50% was noted in the Se group at 0.75 ppm. The results including the differential response of GR activity to Se or mimosine supplementation are reflective of an effective reductive environment in Se groups and increased turnover of GSH in the presence of mimosine.
TL;DR: The present study indicates that the accumulation of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium occurs progressively in the mitral valve with aging, but does not occur in the tricuspid valve.
Abstract: To examine age-related changes of human cardiac valves, mitral and tricuspid valves were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The subjects for mitral valves consisted of 12 men and 8 women, ranging in age from 52 to 96 yr. The subjects for tricuspid valves consisted of 11 men and 6 women, ranging in age from 52 to 93 yr. Furthermore, 16 of the samples of the cardiac valves were derived from the same subjects. The contents of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in the mitral valves increased progressively with advancing age and reached maximum in the 80s in regard to calcium and phosphorus and maximum in the 90s in regard to magnesium. The maximum average amounts corresponded to about three times the average contents in the 60s. In contrast, the content of sulfur in the mitral valves remained constant between the 50s and 90s. Regarding tricuspid valve, the contents of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium scarcely increased with advancing age, except for one subject who died of chronic renal failure. Histological observations of the mitral valves revealed that deposits of calcium were present in both the elastic fibers and its degenerative tissues of the mitral valve. The present study indicates that the accumulation of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium occurs progressively in the mitral valve with aging, but does not occur in the tricuspid valve.