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Kallol Bhattacharya

Bio: Kallol Bhattacharya is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Interferometry & Polarizer. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 78 publications receiving 375 citations. Previous affiliations of Kallol Bhattacharya include Jadavpur University & Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a holistic off-line handwriting recognition system based on extraction of directional features which depends on the stroke orientation distribution of cursive word, which is compared with the state-of-the-art methods for handwritten character recognition using C-Cube data-set.

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The novelty of the proposed configuration is its simplicity, minimal number of optical elements, insensitivity to vibration, and its inherent capability to compensate for the phase curvature that results from the illuminating wavefront in the case of microscopic samples.
Abstract: A new optical configuration for digital holographic microscopy is presented. Digital off-axis holograms are recorded by use of a single cube beam splitter in a nonconventional configuration to both split and combine a diverging spherical wavefront as it emerges from a single point source. Both the amplitude and the phase can then be reconstructed, yielding intensity and phase images with improved resolution. The novelty of the proposed configuration is its simplicity, minimal number of optical elements, insensitivity to vibration, and its inherent capability to compensate for the phase curvature that results from the illuminating wavefront in the case of microscopic samples.

41 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study deals with the design and characteristics of two different quarter-wave achromatic retarders in the 500-700 nm range, using a cascaded system of two birefringent plates, and appears that the proposed arrangement has the promise of producing good a chromatic combinations.
Abstract: Achromatic wave plates are ideal components for use with tunable and multiline laser systems, broadband sources, and in astronomical instrumentation. The present study deals with the design and characteristics of two different quarter-wave achromatic retarders in the 500-700 nm range, using a cascaded system of two birefringent plates. The first of these shows a variation of less than ±0.5°, whereas the second system shows a variation of ±4° where the azimuth remains constant. Finally, a comparison between the two systems is made. The succinct and simple Jones matrix formalism has been used to derive the general expression for the equivalent retardation and azimuth of the combinations. It appears that the proposed arrangement has the promise of producing good achromatic combinations.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a full-field polarization phase shifting interferometric technique, based on the Twyman-Green interferometer, was proposed for the purpose of calibration of phase in spatial light modulators.
Abstract: Calibration of phase in spatial light modulators is a prerequisite for applications where a prespecified phase distribution needs to be imple- mented over the surface of the modulator. The present work proposes a full-field polarization phase shifting interferometric technique, based on the Twyman-Green interferometer, for the purpose. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of such phase and amplitude coatings on the imaging properties of a lens can be achieved by using suitably oriented polarization masks on the lens aperture, which can be continuously varied by changing the orientation of the polarizing devices included in the system.
Abstract: It is well known that circular symmetric phase and amplitude coatings on the lens aperture modify the imaging qualities of a lens. The present paper shows that the effects of such phase and amplitude coatings on the imaging properties of a lens can be achieved by using suitably oriented polarization masks on the lens aperture. The fact that the response of such a system can be continuously varied by changing the orientation of the polarizing devices included in the system lends it a versatility unobtainable by the use of conventional phase and amplitude coatings on the lens aperture.

22 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a fast Fourier transform method of topography and interferometry is proposed to discriminate between elevation and depression of the object or wave-front form, which has not been possible by the fringe-contour generation techniques.
Abstract: A fast-Fourier-transform method of topography and interferometry is proposed. By computer processing of a noncontour type of fringe pattern, automatic discrimination is achieved between elevation and depression of the object or wave-front form, which has not been possible by the fringe-contour-generation techniques. The method has advantages over moire topography and conventional fringe-contour interferometry in both accuracy and sensitivity. Unlike fringe-scanning techniques, the method is easy to apply because it uses no moving components.

3,742 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and a minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100.
Abstract: A self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100. The photodiode array samples intensities over a 32 x 32 matrix in the interference pattern as the length of the reference arm is varied piezoelectrically. Using these data the minicomputer synchronously detects the phase at each of the 1024 points by a Fourier series method and displays the wavefront in contour and perspective plot on a storage oscilloscope in less than 1 min (Bruning et al. Paper WE16, OSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 1972). The array of intensities is sampled and averaged many times in a random fashion so that the effects of air turbulence, vibrations, and thermal drifts are minimized. Very significant is the fact that wavefront errors in the interferometer are easily determined and may be automatically subtracted from current or subsequent wavefrots. Various programs supporting the measurement system include software for determining the aperture boundary, sum and difference of wavefronts, removal or insertion of tilt and focus errors, and routines for spatial manipulation of wavefronts. FFT programs transform wavefront data into point spread function and modulus and phase of the optical transfer function of lenses. Display programs plot these functions in contour and perspective. The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

1,300 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that, when compared with conventional imaging, PDI yields a factor of 2-3 increase in the distance at which certain target features can be detected.
Abstract: Polarization-difference imaging (PDI) was recently presented by us as a method of imaging through scattering media [Opt. Lett. 20, 608 (1995)]. Here, PDI is compared with conventional, polarizationblind imaging systems under a variety of conditions not previously studied. Through visual and numerical comparison of polarization-difference and polarization-sum images of metallic targets suspended in scattering media, target features initially visible in both types of images are shown to disappear in polarization-sum images as the scatterer concentration is increased, whereas these features remain visible in polarization-difference images. Target features producing an observed degree of linear polarization of less than 1% are visible in polarization-difference images. The ability of PDI to suppress partially polarized background variations selectively is demonstrated, and discrimination of target features on the basis of polarization information is discussed. Our results show that, when compared with conventional imaging, PDI yields a factor of 2-3 increase in the distance at which certain target features can be detected.

294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a generic astronomical telescope configuration is analyzed by modeling a fast Cassegrain telescope followed by a single 90° deviation fold mirror, and the image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images.
Abstract: Detailed knowledge of the image of the point spread function (PSF) is necessary to optimize astronomical coronagraph masks and to understand potential sources of errors in astrometric measurements. The PSF for astronomical telescopes and instruments depends not only on geometric aberrations and scalar wave diffraction but also on those wavefront errors introduced by the physical optics and the polarization properties of reflecting and transmitting surfaces within the optical system. These vector wave aberrations, called polarization aberrations, result from two sources: (1) the mirror coatings necessary to make the highly reflecting mirror surfaces, and (2) the optical prescription with its inevitable non-normal incidence of rays on reflecting surfaces. The purpose of this article is to characterize the importance of polarization aberrations, to describe the analytical tools to calculate the PSF image, and to provide the background to understand how astronomical image data may be affected. To show the order of magnitude of the effects of polarization aberrations on astronomical images, a generic astronomical telescope configuration is analyzed here by modeling a fast Cassegrain telescope followed by a single 90° deviation fold mirror. All mirrors in this example use bare aluminum reflective coatings and the illumination wavelength is 800 nm. Our findings for this example telescope are: (1) The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: one for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-coupled polarization terms. (2) The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. (3) The PSF images for two orthogonal linearly polarization components are shifted with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for unpolarized point sources to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 mas. This is important for both astrometry and coronagraph applications. (4) Part of the aberration is a polarization-dependent astigmatism, with a magnitude of 22 milliwaves, which enlarges the PSF image. (5) The orthogonally polarized components of unpolarized sources contain different wavefront aberrations, which differ by approximately 32 milliwaves. This implies that a wavefront correction system cannot optimally correct the aberrations for all polarizations simultaneously. (6) The polarization aberrations couple small parts of each polarization component of the light (∼10^(-4)) into the orthogonal polarization where these components cause highly distorted secondary, or “ghost” PSF images. (7) The radius of the spatial extent of the 90% encircled energy of these two ghost PSF image is twice as large as the radius of the Airy diffraction pattern. Coronagraphs for terrestrial exoplanet science are expected to image objects 10^(-10), or 6 orders of magnitude less than the intensity of the instrument-induced “ghost” PSF image, which will interfere with exoplanet measurements. A polarization aberration expansion which approximates the Jones pupil of the example telescope in six polarization terms is presented in the appendix. Individual terms can be associated with particular polarization defects. The dependence of these terms on angles of incidence, numerical aperture, and the Taylor series representation of the Fresnel equations lead to algebraic relations between these parameters and the scaling of the polarization aberrations. These “design rules” applicable to the example telescope are collected in § 5. Currently, exoplanet coronagraph masks are designed and optimized for scalar diffraction in optical systems. Radiation from the “ghost” PSF image leaks around currently designed image plane masks. Here, we show a vector-wave or polarization optimization is recommended. These effects follow from a natural description of the optical system in terms of the Jones matrices associated with each ray path of interest. The importance of these effects varies by orders of magnitude between different optical systems, depending on the optical design and coatings selected. Some of these effects can be calibrated while others are more problematic. Polarization aberration mitigation methods and technologies to minimize these effects are discussed. These effects have important implications for high-contrast imaging, coronagraphy, and astrometry with their stringent PSF image symmetry and scattered light requirements.

88 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Genetic Algorithm-based hierarchical feature selection (HFS) model has been designed to optimize the local and global features extracted from each of the handwritten word images under consideration, and performs better in comparison with some recently developed methods on the present dataset.
Abstract: Feature selection plays a key role in reducing the dimensionality of a feature vector by discarding redundant and irrelevant ones. In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm-based hierarchical feature selection (HFS) model has been designed to optimize the local and global features extracted from each of the handwritten word images under consideration. In this context, two recently developed feature descriptors based on shape and texture of the word images have been taken into account. Experimentation is conducted on an in-house dataset of 12,000 handwritten word samples written in Bangla script. This database comprises names of 80 popular cities of West Bengal, a state of India. Proposed model not only reduces the feature dimension by nearly 28%, but also enhances the performance of the handwritten word recognition (HWR) technique by 1.28% over the recognition performance obtained with unreduced feature set. Moreover, the proposed HFS-based HWR system performs better in comparison with some recently developed methods on the present dataset.

87 citations