Other affiliations: Intelligence and National Security Alliance
Bio: Lionel Jouffe is an academic researcher from ESIEA. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fuzzy control system & Fuzzy logic. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 17 publications receiving 1590 citations. Previous affiliations of Lionel Jouffe include Intelligence and National Security Alliance.
TL;DR: The clinical presentation of European patients with mild‐to‐moderate COVID‐19 infection is still unknown and further research is needed to determine the cause of death.
Abstract: Background: The clinical presentation of European patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection is still unknown. Objective: To study the clinical presentation of COVID-19 in Europe. Methods: Patients with positive diagnosis of COVID-19 were recruited from 18 European hospitals. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire. Bayesian analysis was used for analysing the relationship between outcomes. Results: A total of 1,420 patients completed the study (962 females, 30.7% of healthcare workers). The mean age of patients was 39.17 ± 12.09 years. The most common symptoms were headache (70.3%), loss of smell (70.2%), nasal obstruction (67.8%), cough (63.2%), asthenia (63.3%), myalgia (62.5%), rhinorrhea (60.1%), gustatory dysfunction (54.2%) and sore throat (52.9%). Fever was reported by 45.4%. The mean duration of COVID-19 symptoms of mild-to-moderate cured patients was 11.5 ± 5.7 days. The prevalence of symptoms significantly varied according to age and sex. Young patients more frequently had ear, nose and throat complaints, whereas elderly individuals often presented fever, fatigue and loss of appetite. Loss of smell, headache, nasal obstruction and fatigue were more prevalent in female patients. The loss of smell was a key symptom of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients and was not associated with nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. Loss of smell persisted at least 7 days after the disease in 37.5% of cured patients. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 substantially varies according to the age and the sex characteristics of patients. Olfactory dysfunction seems to be an important underestimated symptom of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 that needs to be recognized as such by the WHO.
01 Aug 1998
TL;DR: Fuzzy Actor-Critic Learning (FACL) and Fuzzy Q-Learning are reinforcement learning methods based on dynamic programming (DP) principles and the genericity of these methods allows them to learn every kind of reinforcement learning problem.
Abstract: Fuzzy Actor-Critic Learning (FACL) and Fuzzy Q-Learning (FQL) are reinforcement learning methods based on dynamic programming (DP) principles. In the paper, they are used to tune online the conclusion part of fuzzy inference systems (FIS). The only information available for learning is the system feedback, which describes in terms of reward and punishment the task the fuzzy agent has to realize. At each time step, the agent receives a reinforcement signal according to the last action it has performed in the previous state. The problem involves optimizing not only the direct reinforcement, but also the total amount of reinforcements the agent can receive in the future. To illustrate the use of these two learning methods, we first applied them to a problem that involves finding a fuzzy controller to drive a boat from one bank to another, across a river with a strong nonlinear current. Then, we used the well known Cart-Pole Balancing and Mountain-Car problems to be able to compare our methods to other reinforcement learning methods and focus on important characteristic aspects of FACL and FQL. We found that the genericity of our methods allows us to learn every kind of reinforcement learning problem (continuous states, discrete/continuous actions, various type of reinforcement functions). The experimental studies also show the superiority of these methods with respect to the other related methods we can find in the literature.
TL;DR: A methodology that will help developing Dynamic Object Oriented Bayesian Networks (DOOBNs) to formalise such complex dynamic models, and has been tested, in an industrial context, to model the reliability of a water (immersion) heater system.
Abstract: Nowadays, the complex manufacturing processes have to be dynamically modelled and controlled to optimise the diagnosis and the maintenance policies. This article presents a methodology that will help developing Dynamic Object Oriented Bayesian Networks (DOOBNs) to formalise such complex dynamic models. The goal is to have a general reliability evaluation of a manufacturing process, from its implementation to its operating phase. The added value of this formalisation methodology consists in using the a priori knowledge of both the system's functioning and malfunctioning. Networks are built on principles of adaptability and integrate uncertainties on the relationships between causes and effects. Thus, the purpose is to evaluate, in terms of reliability, the impact of several decisions on the maintenance of the system. This methodology has been tested, in an industrial context, to model the reliability of a water (immersion) heater system.
01 Jul 1997
TL;DR: This paper proposes an adaptation of Watkins' Q-learning for fuzzy inference systems where both the actions and the Q-functions are inferred from fuzzy rules, showing its effectiveness.
Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptation of Watkins' Q-learning (1989, 1992) for fuzzy inference systems where both the actions and the Q-functions are inferred from fuzzy rules. This approach is compared with genetic algorithm on the cart-centering problem, showing its effectiveness.
TL;DR: To evaluate the prevalence and features of, as well as recovery from, smell dysfunction in European patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, 2 distinctive symptoms were identified recently: loss of smell and loss of taste.
Abstract: Loss of Smell and Taste in 2013 European Patients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 Background: Thecoronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly. Commonly reported symptoms, such as fever, cough, dyspnea, fatigue, and myalgia, are nonspecific, and the lack of testing in some European countries may make the diagnosis of COVID-19 challenging. However, 2 distinctive symptoms were identified recently: loss of smell and loss of taste (1). These symptoms were not reported extensively in initial studies (2) and might help in the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and features of, as well as recovery from, smell dysfunction in European patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.
01 Mar 2007
TL;DR: An initiative to develop uniform standards for defining and classifying AKI and to establish a forum for multidisciplinary interaction to improve care for patients with or at risk for AKI is described.
Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder for which currently there is no accepted definition. Having a uniform standard for diagnosing and classifying AKI would enhance our ability to manage these patients. Future clinical and translational research in AKI will require collaborative networks of investigators drawn from various disciplines, dissemination of information via multidisciplinary joint conferences and publications, and improved translation of knowledge from pre-clinical research. We describe an initiative to develop uniform standards for defining and classifying AKI and to establish a forum for multidisciplinary interaction to improve care for patients with or at risk for AKI. Members representing key societies in critical care and nephrology along with additional experts in adult and pediatric AKI participated in a two day conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in September 2005 and were assigned to one of three workgroups. Each group's discussions formed the basis for draft recommendations that were later refined and improved during discussion with the larger group. Dissenting opinions were also noted. The final draft recommendations were circulated to all participants and subsequently agreed upon as the consensus recommendations for this report. Participating societies endorsed the recommendations and agreed to help disseminate the results. The term AKI is proposed to represent the entire spectrum of acute renal failure. Diagnostic criteria for AKI are proposed based on acute alterations in serum creatinine or urine output. A staging system for AKI which reflects quantitative changes in serum creatinine and urine output has been developed. We describe the formation of a multidisciplinary collaborative network focused on AKI. We have proposed uniform standards for diagnosing and classifying AKI which will need to be validated in future studies. The Acute Kidney Injury Network offers a mechanism for proceeding with efforts to improve patient outcomes.
01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future.
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
••29 Apr 2010
TL;DR: Reinforcement Learning and Dynamic Programming Using Function Approximators provides a comprehensive and unparalleled exploration of the field of RL and DP, with a focus on continuous-variable problems.
Abstract: From household appliances to applications in robotics, engineered systems involving complex dynamics can only be as effective as the algorithms that control them. While Dynamic Programming (DP) has provided researchers with a way to optimally solve decision and control problems involving complex dynamic systems, its practical value was limited by algorithms that lacked the capacity to scale up to realistic problems. However, in recent years, dramatic developments in Reinforcement Learning (RL), the model-free counterpart of DP, changed our understanding of what is possible. Those developments led to the creation of reliable methods that can be applied even when a mathematical model of the system is unavailable, allowing researchers to solve challenging control problems in engineering, as well as in a variety of other disciplines, including economics, medicine, and artificial intelligence. Reinforcement Learning and Dynamic Programming Using Function Approximators provides a comprehensive and unparalleled exploration of the field of RL and DP. With a focus on continuous-variable problems, this seminal text details essential developments that have substantially altered the field over the past decade. In its pages, pioneering experts provide a concise introduction to classical RL and DP, followed by an extensive presentation of the state-of-the-art and novel methods in RL and DP with approximation. Combining algorithm development with theoretical guarantees, they elaborate on their work with illustrative examples and insightful comparisons. Three individual chapters are dedicated to representative algorithms from each of the major classes of techniques: value iteration, policy iteration, and policy search. The features and performance of these algorithms are highlighted in extensive experimental studies on a range of control applications. The recent development of applications involving complex systems has led to a surge of interest in RL and DP methods and the subsequent need for a quality resource on the subject. For graduate students and others new to the field, this book offers a thorough introduction to both the basics and emerging methods. And for those researchers and practitioners working in the fields of optimal and adaptive control, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and operations research, this resource offers a combination of practical algorithms, theoretical analysis, and comprehensive examples that they will be able to adapt and apply to their own work. Access the authors' website at www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/rlbook/ for additional material, including computer code used in the studies and information concerning new developments.
TL;DR: It is suggested that CoV-2 infection of non-neuronal cell types leads to anosmia and related disturbances in odor perception in COVID-19 patients.
Abstract: Altered olfactory function is a common symptom of COVID-19, but its etiology is unknown. A key question is whether SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) - the causal agent in COVID-19 - affects olfaction directly, by infecting olfactory sensory neurons or their targets in the olfactory bulb, or indirectly, through perturbation of supporting cells. Here we identify cell types in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb that express SARS-CoV-2 cell entry molecules. Bulk sequencing demonstrated that mouse, non-human primate and human olfactory mucosa expresses two key genes involved in CoV-2 entry, ACE2 and TMPRSS2. However, single cell sequencing revealed that ACE2 is expressed in support cells, stem cells, and perivascular cells, rather than in neurons. Immunostaining confirmed these results and revealed pervasive expression of ACE2 protein in dorsally-located olfactory epithelial sustentacular cells and olfactory bulb pericytes in the mouse. These findings suggest that CoV-2 infection of non-neuronal cell types leads to anosmia and related disturbances in odor perception in COVID-19 patients.
TL;DR: This article proposes to bring the various neuro-fuzzy models used for rule generation under a unified soft computing framework, and includes both rule extraction and rule refinement in the broader perspective of rule generation.
Abstract: The present article is a novel attempt in providing an exhaustive survey of neuro-fuzzy rule generation algorithms. Rule generation from artificial neural networks is gaining in popularity in recent times due to its capability of providing some insight to the user about the symbolic knowledge embedded within the network. Fuzzy sets are an aid in providing this information in a more human comprehensible or natural form, and can handle uncertainties at various levels. The neuro-fuzzy approach, symbiotically combining the merits of connectionist and fuzzy approaches, constitutes a key component of soft computing at this stage. To date, there has been no detailed and integrated categorization of the various neuro-fuzzy models used for rule generation. We propose to bring these together under a unified soft computing framework. Moreover, we include both rule extraction and rule refinement in the broader perspective of rule generation. Rules learned and generated for fuzzy reasoning and fuzzy control are also considered from this wider viewpoint. Models are grouped on the basis of their level of neuro-fuzzy synthesis. Use of other soft computing tools like genetic algorithms and rough sets are emphasized. Rule generation from fuzzy knowledge-based networks, which initially encode some crude domain knowledge, are found to result in more refined rules. Finally, real-life application to medical diagnosis is provided.