Author

# Michael A. Nielsen

Other affiliations: California Institute of Technology, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara ...read more

Bio: Michael A. Nielsen is an academic researcher from University of Queensland. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Quantum information & Quantum algorithm. The author has an hindex of 57, co-authored 120 publication(s) receiving 55138 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Michael A. Nielsen include California Institute of Technology & Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.

Topics: Quantum information, Quantum algorithm, Quantum computer, Open quantum system, Quantum technology

##### Papers

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01 Jan 2000-

Abstract: Part I Fundamental Concepts: 1 Introduction and overview 2 Introduction to quantum mechanics 3 Introduction to computer science Part II Quantum Computation: 4 Quantum circuits 5 The quantum Fourier transform and its application 6 Quantum search algorithms 7 Quantum computers: physical realization Part III Quantum Information: 8 Quantum noise and quantum operations 9 Distance measures for quantum information 10 Quantum error-correction 11 Entropy and information 12 Quantum information theory Appendices References Index

25,609 citations

01 Dec 2010-

TL;DR: This chapter discusses quantum information theory, public-key cryptography and the RSA cryptosystem, and the proof of Lieb's theorem.

Abstract: Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics 3. Introduction to computer science Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application 6. Quantum search algorithms 7. Quantum computers: physical realization Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations 9. Distance measures for quantum information 10. Quantum error-correction 11. Entropy and information 12. Quantum information theory Appendices References Index.

14,183 citations

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31 Jan 2011-

TL;DR: Containing a wealth of figures and exercises, this well-known textbook is ideal for courses on the subject, and will interest beginning graduate students and researchers in physics, computer science, mathematics, and electrical engineering.

Abstract: One of the most cited books in physics of all time, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information remains the best textbook in this exciting field of science. This 10th anniversary edition includes an introduction from the authors setting the work in context. This comprehensive textbook describes such remarkable effects as fast quantum algorithms, quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography and quantum error-correction. Quantum mechanics and computer science are introduced before moving on to describe what a quantum computer is, how it can be used to solve problems faster than 'classical' computers and its real-world implementation. It concludes with an in-depth treatment of quantum information. Containing a wealth of figures and exercises, this well-known textbook is ideal for courses on the subject, and will interest beginning graduate students and researchers in physics, computer science, mathematics, and electrical engineering.

1,703 citations

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Abstract: What entanglement is present in naturally occurring physical systems at thermal equilibrium? Most such systems are intractable and it is desirable to study simple but realistic systems that can be solved. An example of such a system is the one-dimensional infinite-lattice anisotropic XY model. This model is exactly solvable using the Jordan-Wigner transform, and it is possible to calculate the two-site reduced density matrix for all pairs of sites. Using the two-site density matrix, the entanglement of formation between any two sites is calculated for all parameter values and temperatures. We also study the entanglement in the transverse Ising model, a special case of the XY model, which exhibits a quantum phase transition. It is found that the next-nearest-neighbor entanglement (though not the nearest-neighbor entanglement) is a maximum at the critical point. Furthermore, we show that the critical point in the transverse Ising model corresponds to a transition in the behavior of the entanglement between a single site and the remainder of the lattice.

1,218 citations

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Abstract: Suppose Alice and Bob jointly possess a pure state, |ψ〉. Using local operations on their respective systems and classical communication it may be possible for Alice and Bob to transform |ψ〉 into another joint state |φ〉. This Letter gives necessary and sufficient conditions for this process of entanglement transformation to be possible. These conditions reveal a partial ordering on the entangled states and connect quantum entanglement to the algebraic theory of majorization. As a consequence, we find that there exist essentially different types of entanglement for bipartite quantum systems.

779 citations

##### Cited by

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[...]

TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

01 Dec 2010-

TL;DR: This chapter discusses quantum information theory, public-key cryptography and the RSA cryptosystem, and the proof of Lieb's theorem.

Abstract: Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics 3. Introduction to computer science Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application 6. Quantum search algorithms 7. Quantum computers: physical realization Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations 9. Distance measures for quantum information 10. Quantum error-correction 11. Entropy and information 12. Quantum information theory Appendices References Index.

14,183 citations

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Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

8,325 citations

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[...]

Abstract: All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say:
{\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory} But the
essence of quantum formalism - entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky,
Rosen and Schr\"odinger - waited over 70 years to enter to laboratories as a
new resource as real as energy This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves
nonclassical correlations between subsystems, is a potential for many quantum
processes, including ``canonical'' ones: quantum cryptography, quantum
teleportation and dense coding However, it appeared that this new resource is
very complex and difficult to detect Being usually fragile to environment, it
is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to
decipher its rich structure This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its
characterization, detection, distillation and quantifying In particular, the
authors discuss various manifestations of entanglement via Bell inequalities,
entropic inequalities, entanglement witnesses, quantum cryptography and point
out some interrelations They also discuss a basic role of entanglement in
quantum communication within distant labs paradigm and stress some
peculiarities such as irreversibility of entanglement manipulations including
its extremal form - bound entanglement phenomenon A basic role of entanglement
witnesses in detection of entanglement is emphasized

5,916 citations