Muinul H. Banna
Bio: Muinul H. Banna is an academic researcher from University of British Columbia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Rayleigh number & Nusselt number. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 10 publications receiving 218 citations. Previous affiliations of Muinul H. Banna include Memorial University of Newfoundland & Islamic University of Technology.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a thorough review of the advances in sensor technology for measurement of common water quality parameters (pH, turbidity, free chlorine, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity) in drinking water distribution systems.
Abstract: Online drinking water quality monitoring technologies have made significant progress for source water surveillance and water treatment plant operation. The use of these technologies in the distribution system has not been favorable due to the high costs associated with installation, maintenance, and calibration of a large distributed array of monitoring sensors. This has led to a search for newer technologies that can be economically deployed on a large scale. This paper includes a brief description of important parameters for drinking water and current available technologies used in the field. The paper also provides a thorough review of the advances in sensor technology for measurement of common water quality parameters (pH, turbidity, free chlorine, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity) in drinking water distribution systems.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented micro-sensors fabricated and implemented in a serpentine channel interface for the measurement of pH and conductivity, two important water quality parameters.
Abstract: The development of cost-effective, durable and sensitive on-line water quality monitoring sensors that can be installed across water distribution networks has attracted attention to increase the frequency of monitoring and hence reduce the risk of accidental or deliberate contaminations or improve routine control of water quality. This paper presents microsensors fabricated and implemented in a serpentine channel interface for the measurement of pH and conductivity, two important water quality parameters. The performance of these sensors was tested in both still (static) and flowing (dynamic) water. The serpentine channel interface, numerically optimized, provides a constant flow and a constant outlet pressure condition for dynamic experiments. Tests conducted for evaluating the effect of the exposure time on the sensor performance show no change in the sensor response even after one month. Finally, the pH and conductivity sensors were compared against the common commercial sensors used for evaluating water quality. The results show that the pH and conductivity sensors are as precise as the commercial sensors in both static and dynamic conditions. However, the cost of the sensors presented here is significantly lower than that of the commercial sensors.
25 Feb 2011-Materials Science and Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing
TL;DR: In this paper, a tensile test, bending test, microhardness test, and heat deflection temperature test were performed on polyester and bisphenol A epoxy vinyl ester resins.
Abstract: Polyester and bisphenol A epoxy vinyl ester resins were exposed to two different acidic solutions (1 M H 2 SO 4 , Co spent electrolyte), at two different temperatures (25 °C, 75 °C), and for two exposure durations (1 week, 4 weeks). Various mechanical tests and microstructural analysis were performed in order to study test sensitivity and resin susceptibility to exposure conditions. The various tests performed included a tensile test (ASTM D638), a bending test (ASTM D790), a microhardness test, a heat deflection temperature test (ASTM D648), and microstructural analysis (optical microscopy, SEM–EDS). Results indicated that the bending test and the microhardness tests were found to be the most sensitive tests to exposure conditions. The polyester resin had lower modulus values when exposed to higher temperature or higher exposure duration compared to the bisphenol A epoxy vinyl ester resin. For both resins the average hardness increased more after 2 weeks exposure and then decreased after 4 weeks exposure (but still higher than the unexposed) owing to a relationship between hardness, depth of microhardness indentation, and microstructure. The microstructure of the polyester degraded more under acid and higher temperature exposure as indicated by increased surface roughness, cracks and diffusion of sulphur into the cracks.
TL;DR: An interface is designed and fabricated using additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology—material extrusion and material jetting—to provide a conduit for miniaturized sensors for continuous online water quality monitoring to minimize the water bled despite varying pressure from WDS.
Abstract: The online and accurate monitoring of drinking water supply networks is critically in demand to rapidly detect the accidental or deliberate contamination of drinking water. At present, miniaturized water quality monitoring sensors developed in the laboratories are usually tested under ambient pressure and steady-state flow conditions; however, in Water Distribution Systems (WDS), both the pressure and the flowrate fluctuate. In this paper, an interface is designed and fabricated using additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology-material extrusion (Trade Name: fused deposition modeling, FDM) and material jetting-to provide a conduit for miniaturized sensors for continuous online water quality monitoring. The interface is designed to meet two main criteria: low pressure at the inlet of the sensors and a low flowrate to minimize the water bled (i.e., leakage), despite varying pressure from WDS. To meet the above criteria, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model was used to optimize the geometry of the channel. The 3D printed interface, with the embedded miniaturized pH and conductivity sensors, was then tested at different temperatures and flowrates. The results show that the response of the pH sensor is independent of the flowrate and temperature. As for the conductivity sensor, the flowrate and temperature affect only the readings at a very low conductivity (4 µS/cm) and high flowrates (30 mL/min), and a very high conductivity (460 µS/cm), respectively.
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-dimensional, steady mixed convection flow in a porous square vented enclosure has been investigated and the interaction between the buoyancy and imposed forced flow effects are considered in this investigation.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The fundamentals of analytical chemistry is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the authors' digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
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Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ1, United States Environmental Protection Agency2, RWTH Aachen University3, Environment Canada4, Masaryk University5, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology6, Analysis Group7, VU University Amsterdam8, Leibniz Association9, Norwegian Institute for Air Research10, State University of Campinas11
TL;DR: Current experience with the EDA approach and the tools required are summarized, and practical advice on their application is provided, highlighting the need for proper problem formulation and giving general advice for study design.
TL;DR: A power efficient, simpler solution for in-pipe water quality monitoring based on Internet of Things technology is presented, which provides an alert to a remote user, when there is a deviation of water quality parameters from the pre-defined set of standard values.
Abstract: Smart solutions for water quality monitoring are gaining importance with advancement in communication technology. This paper presents a detailed overview of recent works carried out in the field of smart water quality monitoring. Also, a power efficient, simpler solution for in-pipe water quality monitoring based on Internet of Things technology is presented. The model developed is used for testing water samples and the data uploaded over the Internet are analyzed. The system also provides an alert to a remote user, when there is a deviation of water quality parameters from the pre-defined set of standard values.
TL;DR: 3D-printed graphene electrodes for electrochemical sensing are presented and the electrochemical detection of picric acid and ascorbic acid was carried out as proof-of-concept analytes for sensing applications.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing provides a unique tool for prototyping structures toward electrochemical sensing, due to its ability to produce highly versatile, tailored-shaped devices in a low-cost and fast way with minimized waste. Here we present 3D-printed graphene electrodes for electrochemical sensing. Ring- and disc-shaped electrodes were 3D-printed with a Fused Deposition Modeling printer and characterized using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. Different redox probes K3Fe(CN)6:K4Fe(CN)6, FeCl3, ascorbic acid, Ru(NH3)6Cl3, and ferrocene monocarboxylic acid) were used to assess the electrochemical performance of these devices. Finally, the electrochemical detection of picric acid and ascorbic acid was carried out as proof-of-concept analytes for sensing applications. Such customizable platforms represent promising alternatives to conventional electrodes for a wide range of sensing applications.
TL;DR: The distinctive benefits and constraints associated with emerging 3D printing technologies with respect to the fabrication of both microfluidic and microelectronic systems are evaluated.