Author

# Pritam Ranjan

Other affiliations: Simon Fraser University, Acadia University, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

Bio: Pritam Ranjan is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Management Indore. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Gaussian process & Computer experiment. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 64 publication(s) receiving 1038 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Pritam Ranjan include Simon Fraser University & Acadia University.

##### Papers

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TL;DR: A sequential methodology for estimating a contour from a complex computer code using a stochastic process model as a surrogate for the computer simulator is developed and applied to exploration of a contours for a network queuing system.

Abstract: Computer simulation often is used to study complex physical and engineering processes. Although a computer simulator often can be viewed as an inexpensive way to gain insight into a system, it still can be computationally costly. Much of the recent work on the design and analysis of computer experiments has focused on scenarios where the goal is to fit a response surface or process optimization. In this article we develop a sequential methodology for estimating a contour from a complex computer code. The approach uses a stochastic process model as a surrogate for the computer simulator. The surrogate model and associated uncertainty are key components in a new criterion used to identify the computer trials aimed specifically at improving the contour estimate. The proposed approach is applied to exploration of a contour for a network queuing system. Issues related to practical implementation of the proposed approach also are addressed.

253 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a lower bound on the nugget that minimizes the over-smoothing and an iterative regularization approach to construct a predictor that further improves the inter...

Abstract: For many expensive deterministic computer simulators, the outputs do not have replication error and the desired metamodel (or statistical emulator) is an interpolator of the observed data. Realizations of Gaussian spatial processes (GP) are commonly used to model such simulator outputs. Fitting a GP model to n data points requires the computation of the inverse and determinant of n×n correlation matrices, R, that are sometimes computationally unstable due to near-singularity of R. This happens if any pair of design points are very close together in the input space. The popular approach to overcome near-singularity is to introduce a small nugget (or jitter) parameter in the model that is estimated along with other model parameters. The inclusion of a nugget in the model often causes unnecessary over-smoothing of the data. In this article, we propose a lower bound on the nugget that minimizes the over-smoothing and an iterative regularization approach to construct a predictor that further improves the inter...

99 citations

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TL;DR: A lower bound on the nugget is proposed that minimizes the over-smoothing and an iterative regularization approach to construct a predictor that further improves the interpolation accuracy is proposed.

Abstract: For many expensive deterministic computer simulators, the outputs do not have replication error and the desired metamodel (or statistical emulator) is an interpolator of the observed data. Realizations of Gaussian spatial processes (GP) are commonly used to model such simulator outputs. Fitting a GP model to $n$ data points requires the computation of the inverse and determinant of $n \times n$ correlation matrices, $R$, that are sometimes computationally unstable due to near-singularity of $R$. This happens if any pair of design points are very close together in the input space. The popular approach to overcome near-singularity is to introduce a small nugget (or jitter) parameter in the model that is estimated along with other model parameters. The inclusion of a nugget in the model often causes unnecessary over-smoothing of the data. In this paper, we propose a lower bound on the nugget that minimizes the over-smoothing and an iterative regularization approach to construct a predictor that further improves the interpolation accuracy. We also show that the proposed predictor converges to the GP interpolator.

89 citations

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TL;DR: This paper implements a slightly modified version of the model proposed by Ranjan et al. (2011) in the R package GPfit, with a novel parameterization of the spatial correlation function and a clustering based multi-start gradient based optimization algorithm that yield robust optimization that is typically faster than the genetic algorithm based approach.

Abstract: Gaussian process (GP) models are commonly used statistical metamodels for emulating expensive computer simulators. Fitting a GP model can be numerically unstable if any pair of design points in the input space are close together. Ranjan, Haynes, and Karsten (2011) proposed a computationally stable approach for fitting GP models to deterministic computer simulators. They used a genetic algorithm based approach that is robust but computationally intensive for maximizing the likelihood. This paper implements a slightly modified version ofthe model proposed by Ranjan et al. (2011 ) in the R package GPfit. A novel parameterization of the spatial correlation function and a clustering based multi-start gradient based optimization algorithm yield robust optimization that is typically faster than the genetic algorithm based approach. We present two examples with R codes to illustrate the usage of the main functions in GPfit . Several test functions are used for performance comparison with the popular R package mlegp . We also use GPfit for a real application, i.e., for emulating the tidal kinetic energy model for the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. GPfit is free software and distributed under the General Public License and available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network.

86 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a combination of response surface modeling, expected improvement, and the augmented Lagrangian numerical optimization framework is proposed to solve the problem of constrained black-box optimization.

Abstract: Constrained blackbox optimization is a difficult problem, with most approaches coming from the mathematical programming literature. The statistical literature is sparse, especially in addressing problems with nontrivial constraints. This situation is unfortunate because statistical methods have many attractive properties: global scope, handling noisy objectives, sensitivity analysis, and so forth. To narrow that gap, we propose a combination of response surface modeling, expected improvement, and the augmented Lagrangian numerical optimization framework. This hybrid approach allows the statistical model to think globally and the augmented Lagrangian to act locally. We focus on problems where the constraints are the primary bottleneck, requiring expensive simulation to evaluate and substantial modeling effort to map out. In that context, our hybridization presents a simple yet effective solution that allows existing objective-oriented statistical approaches, like those based on Gaussian process surrogates ...

66 citations

##### Cited by

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TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.

Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

12,326 citations

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01 Jan 2016

TL;DR: This review paper introduces Bayesian optimization, highlights some of its methodological aspects, and showcases a wide range of applications.

Abstract: Big Data applications are typically associated with systems involving large numbers of users, massive complex software systems, and large-scale heterogeneous computing and storage architectures. The construction of such systems involves many distributed design choices. The end products (e.g., recommendation systems, medical analysis tools, real-time game engines, speech recognizers) thus involve many tunable configuration parameters. These parameters are often specified and hard-coded into the software by various developers or teams. If optimized jointly, these parameters can result in significant improvements. Bayesian optimization is a powerful tool for the joint optimization of design choices that is gaining great popularity in recent years. It promises greater automation so as to increase both product quality and human productivity. This review paper introduces Bayesian optimization, highlights some of its methodological aspects, and showcases a wide range of applications.

2,341 citations

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TL;DR: An iterative approach based on Monte Carlo Simulation and Kriging metamodel to assess the reliability of structures in a more efficient way and is shown to be very efficient as the probability of failure obtained with AK-MCS is very accurate and this, for only a small number of calls to the performance function.

Abstract: An important challenge in structural reliability is to keep to a minimum the number of calls to the numerical models. Engineering problems involve more and more complex computer codes and the evaluation of the probability of failure may require very time-consuming computations. Metamodels are used to reduce these computation times. To assess reliability, the most popular approach remains the numerous variants of response surfaces. Polynomial Chaos [1] and Support Vector Machine [2] are also possibilities and have gained considerations among researchers in the last decades. However, recently, Kriging, originated from geostatistics, have emerged in reliability analysis. Widespread in optimisation, Kriging has just started to appear in uncertainty propagation [3] and reliability [4] , [5] studies. It presents interesting characteristics such as exact interpolation and a local index of uncertainty on the prediction which can be used in active learning methods. The aim of this paper is to propose an iterative approach based on Monte Carlo Simulation and Kriging metamodel to assess the reliability of structures in a more efficient way. The method is called AK-MCS for Active learning reliability method combining Kriging and Monte Carlo Simulation. It is shown to be very efficient as the probability of failure obtained with AK-MCS is very accurate and this, for only a small number of calls to the performance function. Several examples from literature are performed to illustrate the methodology and to prove its efficiency particularly for problems dealing with high non-linearity, non-differentiability, non-convex and non-connex domains of failure and high dimensionality.

796 citations

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01 Jan 1987

653 citations

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TL;DR: This paper develops an efficient reliability analysis method that accurately characterizes the limit state throughout the random variable space and is both accurate for any arbitrarily shaped limit state and computationally efficient even for expensive response functions.

Abstract: Many engineering applications are characterized by implicit response functions that are expensive to evaluate and sometimes nonlinear in their behavior, making reliability analysis difficult. This paper develops an efficient reliability analysis method that accurately characterizes the limit state throughout the random variable space. The method begins with a Gaussian process model built from a very small number of samples, and then adaptively chooses where to generate subsequent samples to ensure that the model is accurate in the vicinity of the limit state. The resulting Gaussian process model is then sampled using multimodal adaptive importance sampling to calculate the probability of exceeding (or failing to exceed) the response level of interest. By locating multiple points on or near the limit state, more complex and nonlinear limit states can be modeled, leading to more accurate probability integration. By concentrating the samples in the area where accuracy is important (i.e., in the vicinity of the limit state), only a small number of true function evaluations are required to build a quality surrogate model. The resulting method is both accurate for any arbitrarily shaped limit state and computationally efficient even for expensive response functions. This new method is applied to a collection of example problems including one that analyzes the reliability of a microelectromechanical system device that current available methods have difficulty solving either accurately or efficiently.

581 citations