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Richard T. Mowday

Bio: Richard T. Mowday is an academic researcher from University of Oregon. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turnover & Job satisfaction. The author has an hindex of 26, co-authored 49 publications receiving 23715 citations.

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TL;DR: The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) as discussed by the authors ) is a measure of employee commitment to work organizations, developed by Porter and his colleagues, which is based on a series of studies among 2563 employees in nine divergent organizations.

8,144 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a study of the variations in organizational commitment and job satisfaction, as related to subsequent turnover in a sample of recently-employed psychiatric technician trainees, was reported.
Abstract: : A study is reported of the variations in organizational commitment and job satisfaction, as related to subsequent turnover in a sample of recently-employed psychiatric technician trainees. A longitudinal study was made across a 10 1/2 month period, with attitude measures collected at four points in time. For this sample, job satisfaction measures appeared better able to differentiate future stayers from leavers in the earliest phase of the study. With the passage of time, organizational commitment measures proved to be a better predictor of turnover, and job satisfaction failed to predict turnover. The findings are discussed in the light of other related studies, and possible explanations are examined. (Modified author abstract)

5,680 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Workplace democracy has been studied extensively in the literature as mentioned in this paper, with a focus more on the workplace than on society at large, in contrast to Pateman's Partici~pationan md Denocratic Theorvy (1970).
Abstract: fair share of the fruits of their labor' (p. 6). However, the discussion is implicitly within the context of capitalist society, in contrast o Vanek's The Participatory Economty (197 1). Moreover, the discussion focuses more on the workplace than on society at large, in contrast to Pateman's Partici~pationan md Denocratic Theorvy (1970). Without going into particular detail on the failures of hierarchically-controlled workplaces, the readings in the book discuss alternative ways to share the control of workplaces. Many of those who turn to this book will not need convincing of the failures and the need for alternatives. Other readers will not be as convinced as the editors and their contributors about the need to create alternative structures. Nonetheless, even these more skeptical readers may profit from the perspectives these examinations of the alternatives bring to light concerning legal structures, ownership, hierarchy, power, and decision maiking in conventional organizations; as well as organizational theory, grassroots movements, quality-of-working-life (QWL) projects, and economic development. The selections from other sources and the articles written originally for this book cover theory, case studies, and essays on the practicability of workplace democracy. The theoretical pieces are classics in this young field by Rothschild-Whitt, Bernstein, Berman, and Ellermlan (a student of Vanek). Even case studies have significant theoretical import. For instance, Kanter, Stein, and Brinkerhoff use a QWL program to develop a theory of co-existing parallel structures to meet goals of productivity and participatory dcemocracy. The case studies are drawn from the widest assortment of organizations. They include worker buyouts of manufacturing facilities, older worker cooperatives (such as San Francisco's refuse collectors and the Pacific northwest's plywood cooperatives), an insurance company, alternative schools, radical legal collectives, worker-owned groceries and small service businesses, and even a feminist illegal abortion collective. Some of the articles about these cases are academically analytical and dispassionate discussions; others are politically rhetorical and journalistic narrations; still others are countercultural criticism and self-criticism. Despite the optimism expressed, the editors and contributors tend to be honest, showing many instances of how workplace democracy in America has not worked well. A few articles, however, are too full of dated syndicalist or anti-establishment rhetoric. Even sympathetic readers may find articles by Benello and Gorz tiresome. (Incidentally, Gorz himself has recently moved away from the faith in workers' control that he expressed in the 1973 piece reprinted in the book.) Some of the articles also show a poor or superficial understanding of' labor movem-nent history and operatiolns. The book evokes the spirit of late 1960s and early 1 970s countercultural radicalism Ibrought into the workplace. Not that the concerns about workplace hierarchy, authority, and equity are passe, it just seems that much of this book neecds updating. As shown by Boyte's The Backyard Revolutihon (1981), Carnoy and Shearer's EconomiC Democrtcy (c1981), and Whyte etal.'s Wo(rker OW11efrshtip andl, Participation (1983), grass-roots participatory economic development a ncl alternatives to corporate control are not '60s ghosts. They are economic, social, and political realities of the 1 980s. Unfortunately, owing perhaps to publishing delays, the articles in this 1982 book tend to date earlier than 1980. In fact, the median date of writing seems to have been 1977-78. Despite these flaws, this is overall a fine collection of pieces documenting the plural contemporary strains of workplace democracy. The book's advocacy of a \"third sector\" of selfmanaged enterprises may not be to every reacter's liking. Nevertheless, its plresentation of the possibilities, particularly through actual exam-i ples, should stimulate furlther understanding of, if not optimism about, workplace democracy. Arthur Hochner

1,832 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a group of 445 employees of a financial institution responded to a mailed survey and tested propositions derived from Steers and Mow day's (1981) model, through access to their personnel re...
Abstract: This study tested propositions derived from Steers and Mow day's (1981) model. A group of 445 employees of a financial institution responded to a mailed survey. Through access to their personnel re...

621 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: Relationship marketing, established, developing, and maintaining successful relational exchanges, constitutes a major shift in marketing theory and practice as mentioned in this paper, after conceptualizing relationship relationships as a set of relationships.
Abstract: Relationship marketing—establishing, developing, and maintaining successful relational exchanges—constitutes a major shift in marketing theory and practice. After conceptualizing relationship marke...

19,920 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors synthesize these previously fragmented literatures around a more general "upper echelons perspective" and claim that organizational outcomes (strategic choices and performance levels) are partially predicted by managerial background characteristics.
Abstract: Theorists in various fields have discussed characteristics of top managers. This paper attempts to synthesize these previously fragmented literatures around a more general “upper echelons perspective.” The theory states that organizational outcomes—strategic choices and performance levels—are partially predicted by managerial background characteristics. Propositions and methodological suggestions are included.

11,022 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a three-component model of organizational commitment, which integrates emotional attachment, identification with, and involvement in the organization, and the normative component refers to employees' feelings of obligation to remain with the organization.
Abstract: Organizational commitment has been conceptualized and measured in various ways. The two studies reported here were conducted to test aspects of a three-component model of commitment which integrates these various conceptualizations. The affective component of organizational commitment, proposed by the model, refers to employees' emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in, the organization. The continuance component refers to commitment based on the costs that employees associate with leaving the organization. Finally, the normative component refers to employees' feelings of obligation to remain with the organization. In Study 1, scales were developed to measure these components. Relationships among the components of commitment and with variables considered their antecedents were examined in Study 2. Results of a canonical correlation analysis suggested that, as predicted by the model, the affective and continuance components of organizational commitment are empirically distinguishable constructs with different correlates. The affective and normative components, although distinguishable, appear to be somewhat related. The importance of differentiating the components of commitment, both in research and practice, is discussed.

10,654 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors go beyond the existing distinction between attitudinal and behavioral commitment and argue that commitment, as a psychological state, has at least three separable components reflecting a desire (affective commitment), a need (continuance commitment), and an obligation (normative commitment) to maintain employment in an organization.

9,212 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons, and social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation.
Abstract: It is argued that (a) social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; (b) social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation; and (c) social identification leads to activities that are congruent with the identity, support for institutions that embody the identity, stereotypical perceptions of self and others, and outcomes that traditionally are associated with group formation, and it reinforces the antecedents of identification. This perspective is applied to organizational socialization, role conflict, and intergroup relations.

8,480 citations