Other affiliations: National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
Bio: Sachin Kumar is an academic researcher from Central University of Jharkhand. The author has contributed to research in topics: Pyrolysis & Diesel fuel. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 41 publications receiving 1279 citations. Previous affiliations of Sachin Kumar include National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.
Abstract: Plastics have become an indispensable ingredient of human life. They are non-biodegradable polymers of mostly containing carbon, hydrogen, and few other elements such as chlorine, nitrogen etc. Rapid growth of the world population led to increased demand of commodity plastics. High density poly ethylene is one of the largest used commodity plastics due to its vast applications in many fields. Due to its non bio degradability and low life, HDPE contributes significantly to the problem of Municipal Waste Management. To avert environment pollution of HDPE wastes, they must be recycled and recovered. On the other hand, steady depletion of fossil fuel and increased energy demand, motivated the researchers and technologists to search and develop different energy sources. Waste to energy has been a significant way to utilize the waste sustainably, simultaneously add to meet the energy demand. Plastics being petrochemical origin have inherently high calorific value. Thus they can be converted back to useful energy. Many researches have been carried out to convert the waste plastics into liquid fuel by thermal and catalytic pyrolysis and this has led to establishment of a number of successful firms converting waste plastics to liquid fuels. This paper reviews the production and consumption HDPE, different methods of recycling of plastic with special reference to chemical degradation of HDPE to fuel. This also focuses on different factors that affect these degradations, the kinetics and mechanism of this reaction.
TL;DR: In this article, a simple pyrolysis reactor system was used to produce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic as the material for pyrolyses, with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400oC to 550oC.
Abstract: Thermal degradation of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a productive method, because this process can convert waste plastics into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. In this work, waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic was chosen as the material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse waste HDPE with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400oC to 550oC. Results of pyrolysis experiments showed that, at a temperature of 450oC and below, the major product of the pyrolysis was oily liquid which became a viscous liquid or waxy solid at temperatures above 475oC. The yield of the liquid fraction obtained increased with the residence time for waste HDPE. The liquid fractions obtained were analyzed for composition using FTIR and GC-MS. The physical properties of the pyrolytic oil show the presence of a mixture of different fuel fractions such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel in the oil.
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance and emission analysis of blends of waste plastic oil obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene with diesel in a CI engine with varying loads is presented.
Abstract: Compression ignition engines have proved to be the best option in heavy duty applications like transportation and power generation, but rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels, their rising prices and ever increasing environmental issues are the major concerns. The present study deals with performance and emission analysis of blends of waste plastic oil obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene with diesel in a CI engine with varying loads. The experimental results show that the brake thermal efficiencies at all load conditions are lower as compared to that of diesel fuel, exhaust gas temperature increases with increase in engine load. The BSFC increases with increase in WPO blend ratio and decreases with increase in engine load. Mechanical efficiency increases with increasing brake power for all fuel blends. The NOx emission and CO emission increase with increase in percentage of waste plastic oil in blends, NOx emission decreases while CO emission increases with increase in engine load. The unburnt hydrocarbon emission decreases with increase in the engine load and increases with increase in percentage of waste plastic oil in blends. The carbon dioxide emission for the blends is lower than diesel for almost all loads and all blends.
TL;DR: In this article, pyrolysis of neem seeds (Azadirachta Indica ) was investigated with an aim to study the physical and chemical characteristics of the bio-fuel produced and to determine its feasibility as a commercial fuel.
Abstract: The pyrolysis of biomass is a very old energy technology that is becoming interesting again among various systems for the energetic utilization of biomass. In the present work, pyrolysis of neem seeds ( Azadirachta Indica ) was investigated with an aim to study the physical and chemical characteristics of the bio-fuel produced and to determine its feasibility as a commercial fuel. Thermal pyrolysis of neem seeds was done in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400–500 °C and at a heating rate of 20 °C/min. The FTIR analysis of the bio-fuel indicates the functional groups such as alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids and amines. The composition of the liquid product was analyzed using GC–MS and found that the main constituents were Octadecanenitrile, Oleanitrile, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, Stearic acid methyl ester. The obtained liquid product can be used as a valuable chemicals feedstock. The physical properties of the bio-fuel obtained were close to that of petroleum fractions.
TL;DR: Kumar et al. as mentioned in this paper studied the physicico-chemical characteristics of resulted leached kaolinite clay were studied by XRF, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM and N 2 adsorption techniques XRF and FTIR study indicate that acid treatment under reflux conditions lead to the removal of the octahedral Al 3+ cations along with other impurities.
Abstract: Kaolin was refluxed with HNO 3 , HCl, H 3 PO 4 , CH 3 COOH, and NaOH of 3M concentration at 110 °C for 4 hours followed by calcination at 550 °C for 2 hours The physico-chemical characteristics of resulted leached kaolinite clay were studied by XRF, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM and N 2 adsorption techniques XRF and FTIR study indicate that acid treatment under reflux conditions lead to the removal of the octahedral Al 3+ cations along with other impurities XRD of acid treated clay shows that, the peak intensity was found to decrease Extent of leaching of Al 3+ ions is different for different acid/base treatment The acid treatment increased the Si/Al ratio, surface area and pore volume of the clay Thus, the treated kaolin clay can be used as promising adsorbent and catalyst supports © 2013 BCREC UNDIP All rights reserved Received: 1st March 2013; Revised: 9th April 2013; Accepted: 19th April 2013 [ How to Cite : Kumar, S, Panda, A K, Singh, RK (2013) Preparation and Characterization of Acids and Alkali Treated Kaolin Clay Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis , 8 (1): 61-69 (doi:109767/bcrec81453061-69)] [ Permalink/DOI : http://dxdoiorg/109767/bcrec81453061-69 ] | View in |
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: The Third edition of the Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology as mentioned in this paper was published in 1989, with the title "Kirk's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology: Chemical Technology".
Abstract: 介绍了Kirk—Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology（化工技术百科全书）（第五版）电子图书网络版数据库，并对该数据库使用方法和检索途径作出了说明，且结合实例简单地介绍了该数据库的检索方法。
TL;DR: In this article, a framework of strategies to guide designers and business strategists in the move from a linear to a circular economy is developed, where the terminology of slowing, closing, and narrowing resource loops is introduced.
Abstract: The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper develops a framework of strategies to guide designers and business strategists in the move from a linear to a circular economy. Building on Stahel, the terminology of slowing, closing, and narrowing resource loops is introduced. A list of product design strategies, business model strategies, and examples for key decision-makers in businesses is introduced, to facilitate the move to a circular economy. This framework also opens up a future research agenda for the circular economy.
TL;DR: This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling, and discusses the main challenges and some potential remedies to these recycling strategies, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one.
Abstract: This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one.
TL;DR: In this article, the pyrolysis process for each type of plastics and the main process parameters that influenced the final end product such as oil, gaseous and char were reviewed.
Abstract: The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental problem. The rising in plastics demand led to the depletion of petroleum as part of non-renewable fossil fuel since plastics were the petroleum-based material. Some alternatives that have been developed to manage plastic wastes were recycling and energy recovery method. However, there were some drawbacks of the recycling method as it required high labor cost for the separation process and caused water contamination that reduced the process sustainability. Due to these drawbacks, the researchers have diverted their attentions to the energy recovery method to compensate the high energy demand. Through extensive research and technology development, the plastic waste conversion to energy was developed. As petroleum was the main source of plastic manufacturing, the recovery of plastic to liquid oil through pyrolysis process had a great potential since the oil produced had high calorific value comparable with the commercial fuel. This paper reviewed the pyrolysis process for each type of plastics and the main process parameters that influenced the final end product such as oil, gaseous and char. The key parameters that were reviewed in this paper included temperatures, type of reactors, residence time, pressure, catalysts, type of fluidizing gas and its flow rate. In addition, several viewpoints to optimize the liquid oil production for each plastic were also discussed in this paper.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect on properties of virgin and recycled HDPE/LDPE/Nylon PSW with different reinforcements like sand, natural fibre, hemp fibre, metal powder etc.
Abstract: Plastic solid waste (PSW) of polymers (like: high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), Nylon etc.) is creating new challenges, which in today's scenario are major research concerns. A sharp rise has been observed in production of different products based on different plastic material. This huge increase in plastic commodities also increases the waste generation thus creating new challenges. Some researchers have reported work in the field of PSW management with different recycling methods. This paper compiles the different research work done by researchers in this field of recycling and progress in recovery and management of PSW by different methods (i.e. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) along with the various identification/separation techniques. Further, this paper reviews the effect on properties of virgin and recycled HDPE/LDPE/Nylon PSW with different reinforcements like sand, natural fibre, hemp fibre, metal powder etc.