TL;DR: A new research direction of software‐defined metAsurfaces is described, which attempts to push metasurfaces toward unprecedented levels of functionality by harnessing the opportunities offered by their software interface as well as their inter‐ and intranetwork connectivity and establish them in real‐world applications.
Abstract: This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme-Future Emerging Topics (FETOPEN) under grant agreement No 736876 (VISORSURF). Financial support by the National Priorities Research Program grant No. NPRP9-383-1-083 from the Qatar National Research Fund is also acknowledged. O.T. acknowledges the ﬁnancial support of the Stavros Niarchos Foundation within the framework of the project ARCHERS (“Advancing Young Researchers’ Human Capital in Cutting Edge Technologies in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage and the Tackling of Societal Challenges”).
TL;DR: An effort to map the current research topics in Twitter focusing on three major areas: the structure and properties of the social graph, sentiment analysis and threats such as spam, bots, fake news and hate speech is presented.
Abstract: Twitter is the third most popular worldwide Online Social Network (OSN) after Facebook and Instagram. Compared to other OSNs, it has a simple data model and a straightforward data access API. This makes it ideal for social network studies attempting to analyze the patterns of online behavior, the structure of the social graph, the sentiment towards various entities and the nature of malicious attacks in a vivid network with hundreds of millions of users. Indeed, Twitter has been established as a major research platform, utilized in more than ten thousands research articles over the last ten years. Although there are excellent review and comparison studies for most of the research that utilizes Twitter, there are limited efforts to map this research terrain as a whole. Here we present an effort to map the current research topics in Twitter focusing on three major areas: the structure and properties of the social graph, sentiment analysis and threats such as spam, bots, fake news and hate speech. We also present Twitter’s basic data model and best practices for sampling and data access. This survey also lays the ground of computational techniques used in these areas such as Graph Sampling, Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. Along with existing reviews and comparison studies, we also discuss the key findings and the state of the art in these methods. Overall, we hope that this survey will help researchers create a clear conceptual model of Twitter and act as a guide to expand further the topics presented.
12 Jun 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a new paradigm, where indoor scattering becomes software-defined and, subsequently, optimizable across wide frequency ranges, where a central server calculates and deploys the optimal electromagnetic interaction per tile, to the benefit of communicating devices.
Abstract: Wireless communication environments are unaware of the ongoing data exchange efforts within them. Moreover, their effect on the communication quality is intractable in all but the simplest cases. The present work proposes a new paradigm, where indoor scattering becomes software-defined and, subsequently, optimizable across wide frequency ranges. Moreover, the controlled scattering can surpass natural behavior, exemplary overriding Snell's law, reflecting waves towards any custom angle (including negative ones). Thus, path loss and multi-path fading effects can be controlled and mitigated. The core technology of this new paradigm are metasurfaces, planar artificial structures whose effect on impinging electromagnetic waves is fully defined by their macro-structure. The present study contributes the software-programmable wireless environment model, consisting of several HyperSurface tiles controlled by a central, environment configuration server. HyperSurfaces are a novel class of metasurfaces whose structure and, hence, electromagnetic behavior can be altered and controlled via a software interface. Multiple networked tiles coat indoor objects, allowing fine-grained, customizable reflection, absorption or polarization overall. A central server calculates and deploys the optimal electromagnetic interaction per tile, to the benefit of communicating devices. Realistic simulations using full 3D ray-tracing demonstrate the groundbreaking potential of the proposed approach in 2.4GHz and 60GHz frequencies.
02 Jul 2019
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors use machine learning for configuring software-defined metasurfaces (SDMs) to the benefit of users within a floorplan wall, by modeling wireless propagation as a custom, interpretable, back-propagating neural network.
Abstract: Software-defined metasurfaces (SDMs) comprise a dense topology of basic elements called meta-atoms, exerting the highest degree of control over surface currents among intelligent panel technologies. As such, they can transform impinging electromagnetic (EM) waves in complex ways, modifying their direction, power, frequency spectrum, polarity and phase. A well-defined software interface allows for applying such functionalities to waves and inter-networking SDMs, while abstracting the underlying physics. A network of SDMs deployed over objects within an area, such as a floorplan walls, creates programmable wireless environments (PWEs) with fully customizable propagation of waves within them. This work studies the use of machine learning for configuring such environments to the benefit of users within. The methodology consists of modeling wireless propagation as a custom, interpretable, back-propagating neural network, with SDM elements as nodes and their cross-interactions as links. Following a training period the network learns the propagation basics of SDMs and configures them to facilitate the communication of users within their vicinity.
TL;DR: The present work offers an addressing and routing solution for static 3D nanonetworks that find applications in material monitoring and programmatic property tuning and minimizing the computational and storage overhead of the proposed scheme.
Abstract: Packet routing in nanonetworks requires novel approaches, which can cope with the extreme limitations posed by the nano-scale. Highly lossy wireless channels, extremely limited hardware capabilities and non-unique node identifiers are among the restrictions. The present work offers an addressing and routing solution for static 3D nanonetworks that find applications in material monitoring and programmatic property tuning. The addressing process relies on virtual coordinates from multiple, alternative anchor point sets that act as viewports. Each viewport offers different address granularity within the network space, and its selection is optimized by a packet sending node using a novel heuristic. Regarding routing, each node can deduce whether it is located on the linear segment connecting the sender to the recipient node. This deduction is made using integer calculations, node-local information and in a stateless manner, minimizing the computational and storage overhead of the proposed scheme. Most importantly, the nodes can regulate the width of the linear path, thus trading energy efficiency (redundant transmissions) for increased path diversity. This trait can enable future adaptive routing schemes. Extensive evaluation via simulations highlights the advantages of the novel scheme over related approaches.
TL;DR: This paper overviews the current research efforts on smart radio environments, the enabling technologies to realize them in practice, the need of new communication-theoretic models for their analysis and design, and the long-term and open research issues to be solved towards their massive deployment.
Abstract: Future wireless networks are expected to constitute a distributed intelligent wireless communications, sensing, and computing platform, which will have the challenging requirement of interconnecting the physical and digital worlds in a seamless and sustainable manner. Currently, two main factors prevent wireless network operators from building such networks: (1) the lack of control of the wireless environment, whose impact on the radio waves cannot be customized, and (2) the current operation of wireless radios, which consume a lot of power because new signals are generated whenever data has to be transmitted. In this paper, we challenge the usual “more data needs more power and emission of radio waves” status quo, and motivate that future wireless networks necessitate a smart radio environment: a transformative wireless concept, where the environmental objects are coated with artificial thin films of electromagnetic and reconfigurable material (that are referred to as reconfigurable intelligent meta-surfaces), which are capable of sensing the environment and of applying customized transformations to the radio waves. Smart radio environments have the potential to provide future wireless networks with uninterrupted wireless connectivity, and with the capability of transmitting data without generating new signals but recycling existing radio waves. We will discuss, in particular, two major types of reconfigurable intelligent meta-surfaces applied to wireless networks. The first type of meta-surfaces will be embedded into, e.g., walls, and will be directly controlled by the wireless network operators via a software controller in order to shape the radio waves for, e.g., improving the network coverage. The second type of meta-surfaces will be embedded into objects, e.g., smart t-shirts with sensors for health monitoring, and will backscatter the radio waves generated by cellular base stations in order to report their sensed data to mobile phones. These functionalities will enable wireless network operators to offer new services without the emission of additional radio waves, but by recycling those already existing for other purposes. This paper overviews the current research efforts on smart radio environments, the enabling technologies to realize them in practice, the need of new communication-theoretic models for their analysis and design, and the long-term and open research issues to be solved towards their massive deployment. In a nutshell, this paper is focused on discussing how the availability of reconfigurable intelligent meta-surfaces will allow wireless network operators to redesign common and well-known network communication paradigms.
TL;DR: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) can be realized in different ways, which include (i) large arrays of inexpensive antennas that are usually spaced half of the wavelength apart; and (ii) metamaterial-based planar or conformal large surfaces whose scattering elements have sizes and inter-distances much smaller than the wavelength.
Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are an emerging transmission technology for application to wireless communications. RISs can be realized in different ways, which include (i) large arrays of inexpensive antennas that are usually spaced half of the wavelength apart; and (ii) metamaterial-based planar or conformal large surfaces whose scattering elements have sizes and inter-distances much smaller than the wavelength. Compared with other transmission technologies, e.g., phased arrays, multi-antenna transmitters, and relays, RISs require the largest number of scattering elements, but each of them needs to be backed by the fewest and least costly components. Also, no power amplifiers are usually needed. For these reasons, RISs constitute a promising software-defined architecture that can be realized at reduced cost, size, weight, and power (C-SWaP design), and are regarded as an enabling technology for realizing the emerging concept of smart radio environments (SREs). In this paper, we (i) introduce the emerging research field of RIS-empowered SREs; (ii) overview the most suitable applications of RISs in wireless networks; (iii) present an electromagnetic-based communication-theoretic framework for analyzing and optimizing metamaterial-based RISs; (iv) provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of research; and (v) discuss the most important research issues to tackle. Owing to the interdisciplinary essence of RIS-empowered SREs, finally, we put forth the need of reconciling and reuniting C. E. Shannon’s mathematical theory of communication with G. Green’s and J. C. Maxwell’s mathematical theories of electromagnetism for appropriately modeling, analyzing, optimizing, and deploying future wireless networks empowered by RISs.
TL;DR: A review on interpretabilities suggested by different research works and categorize them is provided, hoping that insight into interpretability will be born with more considerations for medical practices and initiatives to push forward data-based, mathematically grounded, and technically grounded medical education are encouraged.
Abstract: Recently, artificial intelligence and machine learning in general have demonstrated remarkable performances in many tasks, from image processing to natural language processing, especially with the advent of deep learning (DL). Along with research progress, they have encroached upon many different fields and disciplines. Some of them require high level of accountability and thus transparency, for example, the medical sector. Explanations for machine decisions and predictions are thus needed to justify their reliability. This requires greater interpretability, which often means we need to understand the mechanism underlying the algorithms. Unfortunately, the blackbox nature of the DL is still unresolved, and many machine decisions are still poorly understood. We provide a review on interpretabilities suggested by different research works and categorize them. The different categories show different dimensions in interpretability research, from approaches that provide “obviously” interpretable information to the studies of complex patterns. By applying the same categorization to interpretability in medical research, it is hoped that: 1) clinicians and practitioners can subsequently approach these methods with caution; 2) insight into interpretability will be born with more considerations for medical practices; and 3) initiatives to push forward data-based, mathematically grounded, and technically grounded medical education are encouraged.
TL;DR: The emerging research field of RIS-empowered SREs is introduced; the most suitable applications of RISs in wireless networks are overviewed; an electromagnetic-based communication-theoretic framework for analyzing and optimizing metamaterial-based RISs is presented; and the most important research issues to tackle are discussed.
Abstract: What is a reconfigurable intelligent surface? What is a smart radio environment? What is a metasurface? How do metasurfaces work and how to model them? How to reconcile the mathematical theories of communication and electromagnetism? What are the most suitable uses and applications of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces in wireless networks? What are the most promising smart radio environments for wireless applications? What is the current state of research? What are the most important and challenging research issues to tackle? These are a few of the many questions that we investigate in this short opus, which has the threefold objective of introducing the emerging research field of smart radio environments empowered by reconfigurable intelligent surfaces, putting forth the need of reconciling and reuniting C. E. Shannon's mathematical theory of communication with G. Green's and J. C. Maxwell's mathematical theories of electromagnetism, and reporting pragmatic guidelines and recipes for employing appropriate physics-based models of metasurfaces in wireless communications.
TL;DR: A literature review on recent applications and design aspects of the intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) in the future wireless networks, and the joint optimization of the IRS’s phase control and the transceivers’ transmission control in different network design problems, e.g., rate maximization and power minimization problems.
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review on recent applications and design aspects of the intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) in the future wireless networks. Conventionally, the network optimization has been limited to transmission control at two endpoints, i.e., end users and network controller. The fading wireless channel is uncontrollable and becomes one of the main limiting factors for performance improvement. The IRS is composed of a large array of scattering elements, which can be individually configured to generate additional phase shifts to the signal reflections. Hence, it can actively control the signal propagation properties in favor of signal reception, and thus realize the notion of a smart radio environment. As such, the IRS’s phase control, combined with the conventional transmission control, can potentially bring performance gain compared to wireless networks without IRS. In this survey, we first introduce basic concepts of the IRS and the realizations of its reconfigurability. Then, we focus on applications of the IRS in wireless communications. We overview different performance metrics and analytical approaches to characterize the performance improvement of IRS-assisted wireless networks. To exploit the performance gain, we discuss the joint optimization of the IRS’s phase control and the transceivers’ transmission control in different network design problems, e.g., rate maximization and power minimization problems. Furthermore, we extend the discussion of IRS-assisted wireless networks to some emerging use cases. Finally, we highlight important practical challenges and future research directions for realizing IRS-assisted wireless networks in beyond 5G communications.