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Wolfgang Larbig

Bio: Wolfgang Larbig is an academic researcher from University of Tübingen. The author has contributed to research in topics: Phantom limb & Somatosensory evoked potential. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 48 publications receiving 4705 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jun 1995-Nature
TL;DR: A very strong direct relationship is reported between the amount of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of phantom limb pain (but not non-painful phantom phenomena) experienced after arm amputation, indicating that phantom-limb pain is related to, and may be a consequence of, plastic changes in primary somatosensory cortex.
Abstract: Although phantom-limb pain is a frequent consequence of the amputation of an extremity, little is known about its origin. On the basis of the demonstration of substantial plasticity of the somatosensory cortex after amputation or somatosensory deafferentation in adult monkeys, it has been suggested that cortical reorganization could account for some non-painful phantom-limb phenomena in amputees and that cortical reorganization has an adaptive (that is, pain-preventing) function. Theoretical and empirical work on chronic back pain has revealed a positive relationship between the amount of cortical alteration and the magnitude of pain, so we predicted that cortical reorganization and phantom-limb pain should be positively related. Using non-invasive neuromagnetic imaging techniques to determine cortical reorganization in humans, we report a very strong direct relationship (r = 0.93) between the amount of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of phantom limb pain (but not non-painful phantom phenomena) experienced after arm amputation. These data indicate that phantom-limb pain is related to, and may be a consequence of, plastic changes in primary somatosensory cortex.

1,692 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings suggest that cortical reorganization and phantom limb pain might have a causal relationship and methods designed to alter corticalorganization should be examined for their efficacy in the treatment of phantom limbPain.
Abstract: The causes underlying phantom limb pain are still unknown. Recent studies on the consequences of nervous system damage in animals and humans reported substantial reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex subsequent to amputation, and one study showed that cortical reorganization is positively correlated with phantom limb pain. This paper examined the hypothesis of a functional relationship between cortical reorganization and phantom limb pain. Neuroelectric source imaging was used to determine changes in cortical reorganization in somatosensory cortex after anesthesia of an amputation stump produced by brachial plexus blockade in six phantom limb pain patients and four pain-free amputees. Three of six phantom limb subjects experienced a virtual elimination of current phantom pain attributable to anesthesia (mean change: 3.8 on an 11-point scale; Z = −1.83; p < 0.05) that was mirrored by a very rapid elimination of cortical reorganization in somatosensory cortex (change = 19.8 mm; t (2) = 5.60; p < 0.05). Cortical reorganization remained unchanged (mean change = 1.6 mm) in three phantom limb pain amputees whose pain was not reduced by brachial plexus blockade and in the phantom pain-free amputation controls. These findings suggest that cortical reorganization and phantom limb pain might have a causal relationship. Methods designed to alter cortical reorganization should be examined for their efficacy in the treatment of phantom limb pain.

455 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2001-Brain
TL;DR: Data suggest selective coactivation of the cortical hand and mouth areas in patients with phantom limb pain and reorganizational change may be the neural correlate of phantom limbPain.
Abstract: Using functional MRI, we investigated 14 upper limb amputees and seven healthy controls during the execution of hand and lip movements and imagined movements of the phantom limb or left hand. Only patients with phantom limb pain showed a shift of the lip representation into the deafferented primary motor and somatosensory hand areas during lip movements. Displacement of the lip representation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex was positively correlated to the amount of phantom limb pain. Thalamic activation was only present during executed movements in the healthy controls. The cerebellum showed no evidence of reorganizational changes. In amputees, movement of the intact hand showed a level of activation similar to movement of the right dominant hand in the healthy controls. During imagination of moving the phantom hand, all patients showed significantly higher activation in the contralateral primary motor and somatosensory cortices compared with imagination of hand movements in the controls. In the patients with phantom limb pain but not the pain-free amputees, imagined movement of the phantom hand activated the neighbouring face area. These data suggest selective coactivation of the cortical hand and mouth areas in patients with phantom limb pain. This reorganizational change may be the neural correlate of phantom limb pain.

436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Observed alterations provide evidence for extensive plastic reorganization in the adult human cortex following nervous system injury, but they are not a sufficient cause of the phantom phenomenon termed 'facial remapping'.
Abstract: MAGNETIC source imaging revealed that the topographic representation in the somatosensory cortex of the face area in upper extremity amputees was shifted an average of 1.5 cm toward the area that would normally receive input from the now absent nerves supplying the hand and fingers. Observed alterat

355 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, magnetic source imaging revealed that the topographic representation in the somatosensory cortex of upper extremity amputees was shifted an average of 1.5 cm toward the area that would normally receive input from the now absent nerves supplying the hand and fingers.
Abstract: MAGNETIC source imaging revealed that the topographic representation in the somatosensory cortex of the face area in upper extremity amputees was shifted an average of 1.5 cm toward the area that would normally receive input from the now absent nerves supplying the hand and fingers. Observed alterat

348 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: With adequate recognition and effective engagement of all issues, BCI systems could eventually provide an important new communication and control option for those with motor disabilities and might also give those without disabilities a supplementary control channel or a control channel useful in special circumstances.

6,803 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A perceptual theory of knowledge can implement a fully functional conceptual system while avoiding problems associated with amodal symbol systems and implications for cognition, neuroscience, evolution, development, and artificial intelligence are explored.
Abstract: Prior to the twentieth century, theories of knowledge were inherently perceptual. Since then, developments in logic, statis- tics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories that rest on principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. In addition, perceptual approaches have become widely viewed as untenable because they are assumed to implement record- ing systems, not conceptual systems. A perceptual theory of knowledge is developed here in the context of current cognitive science and neuroscience. During perceptual experience, association areas in the brain capture bottom-up patterns of activation in sensory-motor areas. Later, in a top-down manner, association areas partially reactivate sensory-motor areas to implement perceptual symbols. The stor- age and reactivation of perceptual symbols operates at the level of perceptual components - not at the level of holistic perceptual expe- riences. Through the use of selective attention, schematic representations of perceptual components are extracted from experience and stored in memory (e.g., individual memories of green, purr, hot). As memories of the same component become organized around a com- mon frame, they implement a simulator that produces limitless simulations of the component (e.g., simulations of purr). Not only do such simulators develop for aspects of sensory experience, they also develop for aspects of proprioception (e.g., lift, run) and introspec- tion (e.g., compare, memory, happy, hungry). Once established, these simulators implement a basic conceptual system that represents types, supports categorization, and produces categorical inferences. These simulators further support productivity, propositions, and ab- stract concepts, thereby implementing a fully functional conceptual system. Productivity results from integrating simulators combinato- rially and recursively to produce complex simulations. Propositions result from binding simulators to perceived individuals to represent type-token relations. Abstract concepts are grounded in complex simulations of combined physical and introspective events. Thus, a per- ceptual theory of knowledge can implement a fully functional conceptual system while avoiding problems associated with amodal sym- bol systems. Implications for cognition, neuroscience, evolution, development, and artificial intelligence are explored.

5,259 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review of the literature regarding how activity in diverse brain regions creates and modulates the experience of acute and chronic pain states, emphasizing the contribution of various imaging techniques to emerging concepts is presented in this paper.

2,686 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A consensus meeting was convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) to provide recommendations for interpreting clinical importance of treatment outcomes in clinical trials of the efficacy and effectiveness of chronic pain treatments as discussed by the authors.

2,581 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the basic neuroscience processes of pain (the bio part of biopsychosocial, as well as the psychosocial factors, is presented) and on the development of new technologies, such as brain imaging, that provide new insights into brain-pain mechanisms.
Abstract: The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of the most noteworthy developments in the field. The biopsychosocial model is now widely accepted as the most heuristic approach to chronic pain. With this model in mind, a review of the basic neuroscience processes of pain (the bio part of biopsychosocial), as well as the psychosocial factors, is presented. This spans research on how psychological and social factors can interact with brain processes to influence health and illness as well as on the development of new technologies, such as brain imaging, that provide new insights into brain-pain mechanisms.

2,566 citations