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Yu Shi

Bio: Yu Shi is an academic researcher from Zhejiang University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Materials science. The author has an hindex of 33, co-authored 235 publications receiving 5710 citations. Previous affiliations of Yu Shi include Nanjing Normal University & University of Manchester.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The lungs from novel coronavirus pneumonia patients manifest significant pathological lesions, including theAlveolar exudative inflammation and interstitial inflammation, alveolar epithelium proliferation and hyaline membrane formation, while the 2019-nCoV is mainly distributed in lung, the infection also involves in the damages of heart, vessels, liver, kidney and other organs.
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics and the clinical significance of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (termed by WHO as coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). Methods: Minimally invasive autopsies from lung, heart, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, thyroid and skin were performed on three patients died of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Chongqing, China. Hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE), transmission electron microcopy, and histochemical staining were performed to investigate the pathological changes of indicated organs or tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to evaluate the infiltration of immune cells as well as the expression of 2019-nCoV proteins. Real time PCR was carried out to detect the RNA of 2019-nCoV. Results: Various damages were observed in the alveolar structure, with minor serous exudation and fibrin exudation. Hyaline membrane formation was observed in some alveoli. The infiltrated immune cells in alveoli were majorly macrophages and monocytes. Moderate multinucleated giant cells, minimal lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils were also observed. Most of infiltrated lymphocytes were CD4-positive T cells. Significant proliferation of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelia and focal desquamation of alveolar epithelia were also indicated. The blood vessels of alveolar septum were congested, edematous and widened, with modest infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes. Hyaline thrombi were found in a minority of microvessels. Focal hemorrhage in lung tissue, organization of exudates in some alveolar cavities, and pulmonary interstitial fibrosis were observed. Part of the bronchial epithelia were exfoliated. Coronavirus particles in bronchial mucosal epithelia and type Ⅱ alveolar epithelia were observed under electron microscope. Immunohistochemical staining showed that part of the alveolar epithelia and macrophages were positive for 2019-nCoV antigen. Real time PCR analyses identified positive signals for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid. Decreased numbers of lymphocyte, cell degeneration and necrosis were observed in spleen. Furthermore, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymal cells, formation of hyaline thrombus in small vessels, and pathological changes of chronic diseases were observed in other organs and tissues, while no evidence of coronavirus infection was observed in these organs. Conclusions: The lungs from novel coronavirus pneumonia patients manifest significant pathological lesions, including the alveolar exudative inflammation and interstitial inflammation, alveolar epithelium proliferation and hyaline membrane formation. While the 2019-nCoV is mainly distributed in lung, the infection also involves in the damages of heart, vessels, liver, kidney and other organs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the mechanism underlying pathological changes of this disease.

852 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the impact damage of composite laminates in the form of intra-and inter-laminar cracking was modelled using stress-based criteria for damage initiation, and fracture mechanics techniques to capture its evolution.

476 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yu Shi1, Xia Yu1, Hong Zhao1, Hao Wang1, Ruihong Zhao1, Jifang Sheng1 
TL;DR: No abstract available Keywords: COVID-2019; Disease severity; Host susceptibility; risk factors; Risk factors; diseases; host susceptibility; disease severity; hosts susceptibility.
Abstract: No abstract available Keywords: COVID-2019; Disease severity; Host susceptibility; Risk factors.

433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of above-and belowground biodiversity on multiple ecosystem functions (for example, ecosystem multifunctionality, EMF) were investigated on the Tibetan Plateau, China.
Abstract: Plant biodiversity is often correlated with ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, we know little about the relative and combined effects of above- and belowground biodiversity on multiple ecosystem functions (for example, ecosystem multifunctionality, EMF) or how climate might mediate those relationships. Here we tease apart the effects of biotic and abiotic factors, both above- and belowground, on EMF on the Tibetan Plateau, China. We found that a suite of biotic and abiotic variables account for up to 86% of the variation in EMF, with the combined effects of above- and belowground biodiversity accounting for 45% of the variation in EMF. Our results have two important implications: first, including belowground biodiversity in models can improve the ability to explain and predict EMF. Second, regional-scale variation in climate, and perhaps climate change, can determine, or at least modify, the effects of biodiversity on EMF in natural ecosystems.

412 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review aims to summarize the latest research findings and to provide expert consensus on how to contain the epidemic and improve the understanding of this emerging infectious disease.
Abstract: Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. By Feb. 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease resulting from infection with SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations that typically include fever, dry cough, and fatigue, often with pulmonary involvement. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and most individuals within the population at large are susceptible to infection. Wild animal hosts and infected patients are currently the main sources of disease which is transmitted via respiratory droplets and direct contact. Since the outbreak, the Chinese government and scientific community have acted rapidly to identify the causative agent and promptly shared the viral gene sequence, and have carried out measures to contain the epidemic. Meanwhile, recent research has revealed critical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 biology and disease pathogenesis; other studies have focused on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, as well as drug and vaccine development. This review aims to summarize the latest research findings and to provide expert consensus. We will also share ongoing efforts and experience in China, which may provide insight on how to contain the epidemic and improve our understanding of this emerging infectious disease, together with updated guidance for prevention, control, and critical management of this pandemic.

313 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basic virology of SARS-CoV-2 is described, including genomic characteristics and receptor use, highlighting its key difference from previously known coronaviruses.
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus that emerged in late 2019 and has caused a pandemic of acute respiratory disease, named ‘coronavirus disease 2019’ (COVID-19), which threatens human health and public safety. In this Review, we describe the basic virology of SARS-CoV-2, including genomic characteristics and receptor use, highlighting its key difference from previously known coronaviruses. We summarize current knowledge of clinical, epidemiological and pathological features of COVID-19, as well as recent progress in animal models and antiviral treatment approaches for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also discuss the potential wildlife hosts and zoonotic origin of this emerging virus in detail. In this Review, Shi and colleagues summarize the exceptional amount of research that has characterized acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since this virus has swept around the globe. They discuss what we know so far about the emergence and virology of SARS-CoV-2 and the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.

2,904 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs) was described, including several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA.
Abstract: We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer.

2,616 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: FastTree as mentioned in this paper uses sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins, then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree.
Abstract: Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree. For an alignment with N sequences, L sites, and a different characters, a distance matrix requires O(N^2) space and O(N^2 L) time, but FastTree requires just O( NLa + N sqrt(N) ) memory and O( N sqrt(N) log(N) L a ) time. To estimate the tree's reliability, FastTree uses local bootstrapping, which gives another 100-fold speedup over a distance matrix. For example, FastTree computed a tree and support values for 158,022 distinct 16S ribosomal RNAs in 17 hours and 2.4 gigabytes of memory. Just computing pairwise Jukes-Cantor distances and storing them, without inferring a tree or bootstrapping, would require 17 hours and 50 gigabytes of memory. In simulations, FastTree was slightly more accurate than neighbor joining, BIONJ, or FastME; on genuine alignments, FastTree's topologies had higher likelihoods. FastTree is available at http://microbesonline.org/fasttree.

2,436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an open-source implementation of structural equation models (SEM), a form of path analysis that resolves complex multivariate relationships among a suite of interrelated variables.
Abstract: Summary Ecologists and evolutionary biologists rely on an increasingly sophisticated set of statistical tools to describe complex natural systems. One such tool that has gained significant traction in the biological sciences is structural equation models (SEM), a form of path analysis that resolves complex multivariate relationships among a suite of interrelated variables. Evaluation of SEMs has historically relied on covariances among variables, rather than the values of the data points themselves. While this approach permits a wide variety of model forms, it limits the incorporation of detailed specifications. Recent developments have allowed for the simultaneous implementation of non-normal distributions, random effects and different correlation structures using local estimation, but this process is not yet automated and consequently, evaluation can be prohibitive with complex models. Here, I present a fully documented, open-source package piecewiseSEM, a practical implementation of confirmatory path analysis for the r programming language. The package extends this method to all current (generalized) linear, (phylogenetic) least-square, and mixed effects models, relying on familiar r syntax. I also provide two worked examples: one involving random effects and temporal autocorrelation, and a second involving phylogenetically independent contrasts. My goal is to provide a user-friendly and tractable implementation of SEM that also reflects the ecological and methodological processes generating data.

2,194 citations