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Showing papers in "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health in 2022"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper used the direction distance function (DDF) and the Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) productivity index methods to measure the green total factor productivity (GTFP), while Tobit, quantile regression, impulse response function and intermediary effect models were used to study the relationship among digital economy development, industrial structure upgrading and GTFP.
Abstract: The digital economy is an important engine to promote sustainable economic growth. Exploring the mechanism by which the digital economy promotes economic development, industrial upgrading and environmental improvement is an issue worth studying. This paper takes China as an example for study and uses the data of 286 cities from 2011 to 2019. In the empirical analysis, the direction distance function (DDF) and the Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) productivity index methods are used to measure the green total factor productivity (GTFP), while Tobit, quantile regression, impulse response function and intermediary effect models are used to study the relationship among digital economy development, industrial structure upgrading and GTFP. The results show that: (1) The digital economy can significantly improve China’s GTFP; however, there are clear regional differences. (2) The higher the GTFP, the greater the promotion effect of the digital economy on the city’s GTFP. (3) From a dynamic long-term perspective, the digital economy has indeed positively promoted China’s GTFP. (4) The upgrading of industrial structures is an intermediary transmission mechanism for the digital economy to promote GTFP. This paper provides a good reference for driving green economic growth and promoting the environment.

118 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether and to which extent physical activity changed from before to during the Covid-19 pandemic, taking age, gender, and measurement method into account.
Abstract: With the outbreak of the Corona Virus Disease 19 (Covid-19) in late 2019, governments increasingly imposed containment strategies, including social distancing as well as restricted population movement, potentially having negative impacts on mental and physical health. A growing number of studies have examined the impact of the pandemic on different facets of physical activity (PA); an overview combining these (mixed) results, however, is missing. Thus, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether and to which extent PA changed from before to during the Covid-19 pandemic, taking age, gender, and measurement method into account. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Results of the main characteristics were descriptively synthesized and analyzed in a meta-analysis quantifying effects of the pandemic on PA divided by age groups, with additional subgroup analyses of the characteristics age, gender, and measurement method being narratively synthesized. Overall, 57 studies with a total sample size of 119,094 participants (N between 10 and 60,560 subjects) from 14 countries worldwide with participants aged between four and 93 years were included. Thirty-two studies revealed a significant decline in PA, whereas only five studies found a significant increase in PA during the Covid-19 pandemic. Fourteen studies revealed mixed results. PA decreased in all age groups, independent of gender. Most self-reported and all device-based measurement methods showed a reduction in PA. However, effects were not found to be significant in all age groups. Nevertheless, the declining trend should be noted and governments should strive to enable PA within periods of pandemic restrictions, or promote alternatives such as digital training to avoid negative health consequences within the population.

90 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Australia and the five most affected countries are selected in order to review the transmissibility, severity and fatality due to Delta and Omicron variants, and the vaccination programs for each country are reviewed as the main factor in prevention.
Abstract: Genetic variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have been globally surging and devastating many countries around the world. There are at least eleven reported variants dedicated with inevitably catastrophic consequences. In 2021, the most dominant Delta and Omicron variants were estimated to lead to more severity and deaths than other variants. Furthermore, these variants have some contagious characteristics involving high transmissibility, more severe illness, and an increased mortality rate. All outbreaks caused by the Delta variant have been rapidly skyrocketing in infection cases in communities despite tough restrictions in 2021. Apart from it, the United States, the United Kingdom and other high-rate vaccination rollout countries are still wrestling with this trend because the Delta variant can result in a significant number of breakthrough infections. However, the pandemic has changed since the latest SARS-CoV-2 variant in late 2021 in South Africa, Omicron. The preliminary data suggest that the Omicron variant possesses 100-fold greater than the Delta variant in transmissibility. Therefore, this paper aims to review these characteristics based on the available meta-data and information from the first emergence to recent days. Australia and the five most affected countries, including the United States, India, Brazil, France, as well as the United Kingdom, are selected in order to review the transmissibility, severity and fatality due to Delta and Omicron variants. Finally, the vaccination programs for each country are also reviewed as the main factor in prevention.

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a study aimed to assess the level of preoccupation and fears surrounding issues of the 21st-century and the implication for psychological well-being of the general population from Central/Southern Italy among different age groups.
Abstract: Climate Change, Natural Resources Depletion, COVID-19, and Wars are some of the great challenges of our time. The consequences will affect psychological well-being and could have a harmful impact on mental health. This study aimed to assess the level of preoccupation and fears surrounding issues of the 21st-century and the implication for psychological well-being of the general population from Central/Southern Italy among different age groups. A questionnaire that included sociodemographic characteristics, topics formulated ad-hoc about preoccupation, fears, habits, and willingness to change habits in the future related to the 21st-century challenges, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21) was administered online. A sample of 1831 participants (61% F; mean age 47.71 ± 17.30) was obtained. Results showed that young adults and older adults, respectively, reported greater and less psychological well-being. Young adults reported higher scores for preoccupation, changing habits, and willingness to change habits in the future, while older adults reported the lowest scores except for changing habits, also controlling for gender. Results for this variable, as well as correlations between the many variables described, rely on the specificity of age, and 21st-century challenges. Moreover, the main fears related to the 21st-century concerns were different based on both age and gender. In conclusion, the various stresses of the 21st-century discussed in this study have a relationship with personal well-being, and it is important to consider potential global mental health issues resulting from these stressors.

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a review of burnout, an occupational phenomenon that results from chronic stress in the workplace, is presented, along with the main actions that can be used to prevent and/or reduce burnout.
Abstract: A growing body of empirical evidence shows that occupational health is now more relevant than ever due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review focuses on burnout, an occupational phenomenon that results from chronic stress in the workplace. After analyzing how burnout occurs and its different dimensions, the following aspects are discussed: (1) Description of the factors that can trigger burnout and the individual factors that have been proposed to modulate it, (2) identification of the effects that burnout generates at both individual and organizational levels, (3) presentation of the main actions that can be used to prevent and/or reduce burnout, and (4) recapitulation of the main tools that have been developed so far to measure burnout, both from a generic perspective or applied to specific occupations. Furthermore, this review summarizes the main contributions of the papers that comprise the Special Issue on “Occupational Stress and Health: Psychological Burden and Burnout”, which represent an advance in the theoretical and practical understanding of burnout.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The green synthesis of nanoparticles using plants, bacteria, and fungi and the role of plant metabolites in the synthesis process is described and some applications of silver nanoparticles in different aspects such as antimicrobial, biomedicine, mosquito control, environment and wastewater treatment, agricultural, food safety, and food packaging are described.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles are one of the most extensively studied nanomaterials due to their high stability and low chemical reactivity in comparison to other metals. They are commonly synthesized using toxic chemical reducing agents which reduce metal ions into uncharged nanoparticles. However, in the last few decades, several efforts were made to develop green synthesis methods to avoid the use of hazardous materials. The natural biomolecules found in plants such as proteins/enzymes, amino acids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, alcoholic compounds, and vitamins are responsible for the formation of silver nanoparticles. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is an eco-friendly approach, which should be further explored for the potential of different plants to synthesize nanoparticles. In the present review we describe the green synthesis of nanoparticles using plants, bacteria, and fungi and the role of plant metabolites in the synthesis process. Moreover, the present review also describes some applications of silver nanoparticles in different aspects such as antimicrobial, biomedicine, mosquito control, environment and wastewater treatment, agricultural, food safety, and food packaging.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A scoping review of moral stressors, moral distress, PMIEs, and MI of healthcare workers during COVID-19 was conducted using the databases Web of Science Core Collection and PsycINFO based on articles published up to October 2021.
Abstract: Ethical dilemmas for healthcare workers (HCWs) during pandemics highlight the centrality of moral stressors and moral distress (MD) as well as potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and moral injury (MI). These constructs offer a novel approach to understanding workplace stressors in healthcare settings, especially in the demanding times of COVID-19, but they so far lack clear identification of causes and consequences. A scoping review of moral stressors, moral distress, PMIEs, and MI of healthcare workers during COVID-19 was conducted using the databases Web of Science Core Collection and PsycINFO based on articles published up to October 2021. Studies were selected based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) the measurement of either moral stress, MD, PMIEs, or MI among HCWs; (2) original research using qualitative or quantitative methods; and (3) the availability of the peer-reviewed original article in English or German. The initial search revealed n = 149,394 studies from Web of Science and n = 34 studies from EBSCOhost. Nineteen studies were included in the review. Conditions representing moral stressors and PMIEs as well as MD and MI as their potential outcomes in healthcare contexts during COVID-19 are presented and discussed. Highlighting MD and MI in HCWs during COVID-19 brings attention to the need for conceptualizing the impact of moral stressors of any degree. Therefore, the development of a common, theoretically founded model of MD and MI is desirable.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors investigated the relationship between COVID-19-related psychological distress, social media addiction, and burnout, and found that burnout associated with COVID19 significantly and positively predicted depression.
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the relationships between COVID-19-related psychological distress, social media addiction, COVID-19-related burnout, and depression. The research, which was designed according to the relational survey model, was conducted with the participation of 332 school principals and teachers who received graduate education in the field of educational administration. Research data were collected through online surveys and then structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test and analyze the proposed hypotheses. The study’s findings revealed that COVID-19-related psychological distress strongly predicted COVID-19-related burnout. In this context, as the psychological distress associated with COVID-19 increased, the sense of burnout associated with COVID-19 also increased. However, it was found that burnout associated with COVID-19 significantly and positively predicted depression. SEM results revealed that COVID-19-related psychological distress directly affected COVID-19-related burnout, depression, and social media addiction. In addition, it was determined that an indirect effect of COVID-19-related burnout and social media addiction exists in the relationship between COVID-19-related psychological distress and depression.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results on pulmonary function were inconsistent, while improvements were detected in muscle strength, walking capacity, sit-to-stand performance, and quality of life, which seem to advocate for rehabilitation interventions to lessen disability due to PACS.
Abstract: Increasing numbers of individuals suffer from post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS), which manifests with persistent symptoms, the most prevalent being dyspnea, fatigue, and musculoskeletal, cognitive, and/or mental health impairments. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for individuals with PACS. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, CINHAL, Scopus, Prospero, and PEDro databases and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to November 2021. We screened 516 citations for eligibility, i.e., trials that included individuals with PACS exposed to exercise-based rehabilitation interventions. Five RCTs were included, accounting for 512 participants (aged 49.2–69.4 years, 65% males). Based on the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (RoB 2.0), two RCTs had “low risk of bias”, and three were in the “some concerns” category. Three RCTs compared experimental rehabilitation interventions with no or minimal rehabilitation, while two compared two active rehabilitation interventions. Rehabilitation seemed to improve dyspnea, anxiety, and kinesiophobia. Results on pulmonary function were inconsistent, while improvements were detected in muscle strength, walking capacity, sit-to-stand performance, and quality of life. Pending further studies based on qualitatively sound designs, these first findings seem to advocate for rehabilitation interventions to lessen disability due to PACS.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors investigated the interrelationships between COVID-19 quality of life, loneliness, happiness, and Internet addiction, and found that a positive relationship exists between loneliness and happiness and as the loneliness of individuals increased, their level of happiness also increased.
Abstract: It is well acknowledged that the roles of both school administrators and teachers have changed due to the global education crisis caused by COVID-19. During this challenging and critical period, it is essential to investigate how those working in the education sector who undertake strategic tasks for sustainable education are affected by the new conditions brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the interrelationships between COVID-19 quality of life, loneliness, happiness, and Internet addiction. The research was designed according to the relational survey model, was conducted with 432 school administrators and teachers working in K-12 schools. The research data was collected through online questionnaires, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test and analyze proposed hypotheses. The study’s results revealed a positive relationship between the COVID-19 related quality of life and loneliness, and that loneliness significantly positively predicts Internet addiction. In this context, due to the impact of COVID-19 on the life quality, the participants’ loneliness levels significantly increased, and this increase in loneliness caused them to become addicted to using the Internet. Interestingly, it was also determined that a positive relationship exists between loneliness and happiness and that as the loneliness of individuals increased, their level of happiness also increased. In many studies conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a negative relationship was revealed between loneliness and happiness. In the current study conducted during the pandemic, the relationship between the two variables was positive. SEM results revealed that COVID-19 directly affects the quality of life, Internet addiction, loneliness, and happiness of school administrators and teachers. Furthermore, it was determined that Internet addiction indirectly affects the relationship between loneliness and happiness.

47 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper analyzed and measured the relationship between the digital economy and environmental pollution in 287 prefecture-level cities in China using simultaneous spatial equations and the generalized 3-stage least square (GS3SLS) method.
Abstract: The digital economy and the green economy are two major issues for economic recovery in the post epidemic era. From spatial interaction spillover, we analyze and measure the relationships between the digital economy and environmental pollution in 287 prefecture-level cities in China from 2008 to 2018 using simultaneous spatial equations and the generalized 3-stage least square (GS3SLS) method. The results show that: (1) there is a reverse and complex spatio-temporal evolution of the digital economy and environmental pollution in Chinese cities. (2) There is a spatial interaction spillover effect between the digital economy and environmental pollution. Local digital economy and environmental pollution inhibit each other. The digital economy and environmental pollution have a significant spatial spillover. The digital economy of surrounding regions has a suppressive effect on local environmental pollution. The environmental pollution of surrounding cities has a crowding-out effect on the local digital economy. (3) Digital economy suppresses environmental pollution through the green development effect and innovative development effect; environmental pollution suppresses the digital economy through the talent crowding out effect and the policy tightening effect. The conclusion of this paper provides evidence for the coupling and coordinated development between the digital and green economy, which is of great significance for promoting the transformation of economic development modes and realizing green and high-quality development.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Zhang et al. as discussed by the authors used the spatial Durbin model to test whether green finance can successfully regulate the green technology innovation effect of heterogeneous environmental regulations and boost green technology innovations in coordination with heterogeneous Environmental regulations.
Abstract: As an essential way to promote ecological civilization, green finance is attracting wide attention. However, whether green finance can successfully regulate the green technology innovation effect of heterogeneous environmental regulations and boost green technology innovation in coordination with heterogeneous environmental regulations remains unclear. Based on the re-measurement of the green finance development index of various provinces and cities in China, this study uses the spatial Durbin model to test the above problems empirically. The results show that green finance and “market incentive” environmental regulations can promote regional green technology innovation, while “command and control” environmental regulations inhibit regional green technology innovation. Green finance plays a negative regulatory role in the mechanism of heterogeneous environmental regulations affecting green technology innovation. Green finance alleviates the negative impact of “command and control” environmental regulations on green technology innovation and weakens the positive impact of “market-incentive” environmental regulations on green technology innovation. In terms of spillover effects, green finance can effectively promote green technology innovation in neighboring regions, while heterogeneous environmental regulations have a crowding-out effect on green technology innovation in neighboring regions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper examined the impact of environmental regulation on carbon emissions from a different perspective and made the following recommendations: China should make reasonable use of environmental policies to regulate carbon emissions according to the situation of each region, optimize the energy structure and increase the proportion of clean energy use, and improve the technology level of related industries to reduce carbon emissions by innovation.
Abstract: In response to global climate change, China made a commitment about carbon emissions at the UN General Assembly. It will strive to achieve carbon peaking by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060. To help China successfully meet its carbon emissions targets this study examines the impact of environmental regulation on carbon emissions from a different perspective. Using panel data from 30 provinces in China as samples, this paper discusses the direct and indirect effect of environmental regulation on carbon emissions and explains the indirect process through four transmission paths: energy consumption structure, industrial structure, technological innovation, and foreign direct investment (FDI). The empirical results show that the direct effect of environmental regulation on carbon emissions presents an inverted U-shaped curve, it means that when the intensity level of environmental regulation is low, it mainly shows the green paradox effect, and with the continuous tightening of environmental laws, it turns into a forced emission reduction on carbon emissions. In addition, we found that under the constraint of environmental regulation conditions, the coal-based energy consumption is still the leading cause of carbon emissions; environmental regulations have contributed to the upgrading of industrial structure and technological advance, which indirectly play a positive role in carbon emission reduction. However, environmental regulation restrains the spillover effect and capital accumulation effect of FDI, which brings a specific degree of hindrance to technological progress and economic development, and is not conducive to carbon emission reduction. Therefore, we have made the following recommendations: China should make reasonable use of environmental policies to regulate carbon emissions according to the situation of each region, optimize the energy structure and increase the proportion of clean energy use, and improve the technology level of related industries to reduce carbon emissions by innovation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The research findings indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic could make detrimental effects on maternal mental wellbeing among women after childbirth, and much more research on maternal psychological wellbeing during the middle and low-income countries was strongly recommended.
Abstract: Background: Owing to the high prevalence and detrimental consequences, postpartum depression (PPD) has been identified as one of the severe global public health issues in the last decade. Prior research found that during disasters or events, the prevalence rates of mental disorders among postpartum women are significantly high. However, the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on PPD and its risk factors remained unclear for postpartum women. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of PPD and to summarize risk factors for PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Three electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched for articles from their commencements until 1 November 2021. Quality assessment of included studies, random-effects meta-analysis, and sensitivity analysis were performed. Results: A total of eight studies with 6480 postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic were included, and most studies were conducted in developed countries. The pooled prevalence of PPD was 34% (95% CI: 21–46%) during the COVID-19 pandemic, much higher than the incident of previous research during the non-pandemic period. Risk factors for PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, stress and anxiety, lack of various supports, and the COVID-19 related factors. Conclusion: The research findings indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic could make detrimental effects on maternal mental wellbeing among women after childbirth. Investigating the prevalence and risk factors of PPD among postpartum women could shed some light on their mental and emotional states; so that support measures and tailored interventions from health professionals and policymakers could be offered to improve the maternal and infant outcomes, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Much more research on maternal psychological wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic was strongly recommended to undertake in the middle and low-income countries.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors performed a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between vaccination and long COVID and found that the vaccination rate should be improved as soon as possible, especially for a complete vaccination course.
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still in a global pandemic state. Some studies have reported that COVID-19 vaccines had a protective effect against long COVID. However, the conclusions of the studies on the effect of COVID-19 vaccines on long COVID were not consistent. This study aimed to systematically review relevant studies in the real world, and performed a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between vaccination and long COVID. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and ScienceDirect from inception to 19 September 2022. The PICO (P: patients; I: intervention; C: comparison; O: outcome) was as follows: patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (P); vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines (I); the patients were divided into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups (C); the outcomes were the occurrence of long COVID, as well as the various symptoms of long COVID (O). A fixed-effect model and random-effects model were chosen based on the heterogeneity between studies in order to pool the effect value. The results showed that the vaccinated group had a 29% lower risk of developing long COVID compared with the unvaccinated group (RR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58–0.87, p < 0.01). Compared with patients who were not vaccinated, vaccination showed its protective effect in patients vaccinated with two doses (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74–0.94, p < 0.01), but not one dose (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.65–1.07, p = 0.14). In addition, vaccination was effective against long COVD in patients either vaccinated before SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.91, p < 0.01) or vaccinated after SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74–0.92, p < 0.01). For long COVID symptoms, vaccination reduced the risk of cognitive dysfunction/symptoms, kidney diseases/problems, myalgia, and sleeping disorders/problems sleeping. Our study shows that COVID-19 vaccines had an effect on reducing the risk of long COVID in patients vaccinated before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19. We suggest that the vaccination rate should be improved as soon as possible, especially for a complete vaccination course. There should be more studies to explore the basic mechanisms of the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccines on long COVID in the future.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This is the first review of the immense possibilities of VR in neurosurgery, beyond merely planning for surgical procedures, and shows their utility as a supplement and augment for neuronavigation in the fields of diagnosis for complex vascular interventions, spine deformity correction, resident training, procedural practice, pain management, and rehabilitation of neurosurgical patients.
Abstract: Background: While several publications have focused on the intuitive role of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) in neurosurgical planning, the aim of this review was to explore other avenues, where these technologies have significant utility and applicability. Methods: This review was conducted by searching PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, the Scopus database, the Web of Science Core Collection database, and the SciELO citation index, from 1989–2021. An example of a search strategy used in PubMed Central is: “Virtual reality” [All Fields] AND (“neurosurgical procedures” [MeSH Terms] OR (“neurosurgical” [All Fields] AND “procedures” [All Fields]) OR “neurosurgical procedures” [All Fields] OR “neurosurgery” [All Fields] OR “neurosurgery” [MeSH Terms]). Using this search strategy, we identified 487 (PubMed), 1097 (PubMed Central), and 275 citations (Web of Science Core Collection database). Results: Articles were found and reviewed showing numerous applications of VR/AR in neurosurgery. These applications included their utility as a supplement and augment for neuronavigation in the fields of diagnosis for complex vascular interventions, spine deformity correction, resident training, procedural practice, pain management, and rehabilitation of neurosurgical patients. These technologies have also shown promise in other area of neurosurgery, such as consent taking, training of ancillary personnel, and improving patient comfort during procedures, as well as a tool for training neurosurgeons in other advancements in the field, such as robotic neurosurgery. Conclusions: We present the first review of the immense possibilities of VR in neurosurgery, beyond merely planning for surgical procedures. The importance of VR and AR, especially in “social distancing” in neurosurgery training, for economically disadvantaged sections, for prevention of medicolegal claims and in pain management and rehabilitation, is promising and warrants further research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The causal associations between PM3.5 and human health, the toxic effects and potential mechanisms of PM2.5, and molecular pathways have been described in this review.
Abstract: Several epidemiologic and toxicological studies have commonly viewed ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), defined as particles having an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm, as a significant potential danger to human health. PM2.5 is mostly absorbed through the respiratory system, where it can infiltrate the lung alveoli and reach the bloodstream. In the respiratory system, reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) and oxidative stress stimulate the generation of mediators of pulmonary inflammation and begin or promote numerous illnesses. According to the most recent data, fine particulate matter, or PM2.5, is responsible for nearly 4 million deaths globally from cardiopulmonary illnesses such as heart disease, respiratory infections, chronic lung disease, cancers, preterm births, and other illnesses. There has been increased worry in recent years about the negative impacts of this worldwide danger. The causal associations between PM2.5 and human health, the toxic effects and potential mechanisms of PM2.5, and molecular pathways have been described in this review.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyzed the characteristics and interrelation of 133 articles through bibliometric and literature systemization techniques to elucidate expectations and implications for businesses worldwide concerning the long-term financial and functional impact of COVID-19.
Abstract: The paper revises the ample empirical and theoretical literature on sustainable organizational growth and strategic leadership relating to the critical aspects of the ongoing pandemic, including poverty, social responsibility, public health, and organizational and managerial innovation. Drawing from available COVID-19, management, and sustainable leadership publications released from 2020 to 2021, this paper considers influential studies exploring core business concepts, principles, philosophies, and activities for accelerating, stimulating, and nurturing social and corporate sustainability. The study analyzed the characteristics and interrelation of 133 articles through bibliometric and literature systemization techniques. We shed light on the significant influence COVID-19 has had on financial, operational, and psychological solvency and organizational health to elucidate expectations and implications for businesses worldwide concerning the long-term financial and functional impact of COVID-19. An overview of the relevant studies on the individual, organizational, and external factors relating to novel disease’s relation to sustainability are provided. We emphasize the need for digital transformation following the COVID-19 upheaval and throughout the upcoming years. Some of the generally employed techniques in response to adversity entail portfolio diversification, service delivery innovation, product redesigning, new market development, partnering with competitors and/or complementary service providers, synergizing with other stakeholders, and open innovation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study found that, in comparison to non-heavy polluting enterprises, the implementation of green credit policies inhibited the green innovation of all heavy-polluting enterprises.
Abstract: This article uses the “Green Credit Guidelines” promulgated in 2012 as an example to construct a quasi-natural experiment and uses the double difference method to test the impact of the implementation of the “Green Credit Guidelines” on the green innovation activities of heavy-polluting enterprises. The study found that, in comparison to non-heavy polluting enterprises, the implementation of green credit policies inhibited the green innovation of all heavy-polluting enterprises. In the analysis of heterogeneity, this restraint effect did not differ significantly due to the nature of property rights and the company’s size. The mechanism test showed that green credit policy limits the efficiency of business investment and increases the cost of financing business debt. Eliminating corporate credit financing, particularly long-term borrowing, negatively impacts the green innovation behavior of listed companies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study is the first to use VOSviewer, a commonly used software tool for constructing and visualizing bibliometric networks and developed by Center for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands, to conduct bibliomet analyses on VR-aided therapy from the perspective of Web of Science core collection (WoSc), which objectively and visually shows research structures and topics.
Abstract: Health 4.0 aligns with Industry 4.0 and encourages the application of the latest technologies to healthcare. Virtual reality (VR) is a potentially significant component of the Health 4.0 vision. Though VR in health care is a popular topic, there is little knowledge of VR-aided therapy from a macro perspective. Therefore, this paper was aimed to explore the research of VR in aiding therapy, thus providing a potential guideline for futures application of therapeutic VR in healthcare towards Health 4.0. A mixed research method was adopted for this research, which comprised the use of a bibliometric analysis (a quantitative method) to conduct a macro overview of VR-aided therapy, the identification of significant research structures and topics, and a qualitative review of the literature to reveal deeper insights. Four major research areas of VR-aided therapy were identified and investigated, i.e., post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and fear related disorder (A&F), diseases of the nervous system (DNS), and pain management, including related medical conditions, therapies, methods, and outcomes. This study is the first to use VOSviewer, a commonly used software tool for constructing and visualizing bibliometric networks and developed by Center for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands, to conduct bibliometric analyses on VR-aided therapy from the perspective of Web of Science core collection (WoSc), which objectively and visually shows research structures and topics, therefore offering instructive insights for health care stakeholders (particularly researchers and service providers) such as including integrating more innovative therapies, emphasizing psychological benefits, using game elements, and introducing design research. The results of this paper facilitate with achieving the vision of Health 4.0 and illustrating a two-decade (2000 to year 2020) map of pre-life of the Health Metaverse.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to comprehensively review the current literature concerning burn wounds, including classification of burns, complications, medical care, and pharmacological treatment and overviewed the dressings that are currently used in medical practice to heal wounds.
Abstract: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that each year approximately 11 million people suffer from burn wounds, 180,000 of whom die because of such injuries. Regardless of the factors causing burns, these are complicated wounds that are difficult to heal and are associated with high mortality rates. Medical care of a burn patient requires a lot of commitment, experience, and multidirectional management, including surgical activities and widely understood pharmacological approaches. This paper aims to comprehensively review the current literature concerning burn wounds, including classification of burns, complications, medical care, and pharmacological treatment. We also overviewed the dressings (with an emphasis on the newest innovations in this field) that are currently used in medical practice to heal wounds.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper analyzed the levels of green technology innovation (GTI) in 30 provinces in mainland China between 2001 and 2019, using the spatial econometric models and panel threshold models along with the slack based measure (SBM) and Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index to analyze the spatial spillover and nonlinear effects of GTI on regional carbon emissions.
Abstract: The Paris agreement is a unified arrangement for the global response to climate change and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its long-term goal is to hold the global average temperature rise well below 2 °C. China is committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2060 through various measures, one of which is green technology innovation (GTI). This paper aims to analyze the levels of GTI in 30 provinces in mainland China between 2001 and 2019. It uses the spatial econometric models and panel threshold models along with the slack based measure (SBM) and Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index to analyze the spatial spillover and nonlinear effects of GTI on regional carbon emissions. The results show that GTI achieves growth every year, but the innovation efficiency was low. China's total carbon dioxide emissions were increasing at a marginal rate, but the carbon emission intensity was declining year by year. Carbon emissions were spatially correlated and show significant positive agglomeration characteristics. The spatial spillover of GTI plays an important role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In the underdeveloped regions in China, this emission reduction effect was even more significant.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors performed a bibliographic analysis of the available literature on plastic waste management using a computational approach and concluded that road construction and tar and concrete production are the two most effective strategies.
Abstract: Plastic consumption increases with the growing population worldwide and results in increased quantities of plastic waste. There are various plastic waste management strategies; however, the present management progress is not sustainable, and plastic waste dumping in landfills is still the most commonly employed strategy. Being nonbiodegradable, plastic waste dumping in landfills creates several environmental and human health problems. Numerous research studies have been conducted recently to determine safe and ecologically beneficial methods of plastic waste handling. This article performed a bibliographic analysis of the available literature on plastic waste management using a computational approach. The highly used keywords, most frequently cited papers and authors, actively participating countries, and sources of publications were analyzed during the bibliographic analysis. In addition, the various plastic waste management strategies and their environmental benefits have been discussed. It has been concluded that among the six plastic waste management techniques (landfills, recycling, pyrolysis, liquefaction, road construction and tar, and concrete production), road construction and tar and concrete production are the two most effective strategies. This is due to significant benefits, such as ease of localization, decreased greenhouse gas emissions, and increased durability and sustainability of manufactured materials, structures, and roadways. Conversely, using landfills is the most undesirable strategy because of the associated environmental and human health concerns. Recycling has equal benefits and drawbacks. In comparison, pyrolysis and liquefaction are favorable due to the production of char and fuel, but high energy requirements limit their benefits. Hence, the use of plastic waste for construction applications is recommended.

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TL;DR: The results showed that endometrial samples did not express SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and the possible link between COVID-19 and women’s reproductive health was brought light, and there was a large range of alterations, but they were all reversible within the following months.
Abstract: As the coronavirus pandemic is far from ending, more questions regarding the female reproductive system, particularly fertility issues, arise. The purpose of this paper is to bring light upon the possible link between COVID-19 and women’s reproductive health. This review emphasizes the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the hormones, endometrium and menstrual cycle, ovarian reserve, follicular fluid, oocytes, and embryos. The results showed that endometrial samples did not express SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Regarding the menstrual cycle, there is a large range of alterations, but they were all reversible within the following months. The ovarian reserve was not significantly affected in patients recovering from both mild and severe infection in most cases, except one, where the levels of AMH were significantly lower and basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were increased. All COVID-19 recovered patients had positive levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the follicular fluid. The amount of retrieved and mature oocytes and the fertilization rate were unharmed in three studies, except for one study, where the quantity of retrieved and mature oocytes was reduced in patients with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The numbers of blastocysts, top-quality embryos, and euploid embryos were affected in most of the studies reviewed.

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TL;DR: In this paper , a narrative review aims to analyse current findings on air pollution and health in Poland, with a focus on respiratory diseases, including COVID-19, as well as the Poles' awareness of air pollution.
Abstract: According to the World Bank Group, 36 of the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union are in Poland. Thus, ambient air pollution and its detrimental health effects are a matter of immense importance in Poland. This narrative review aims to analyse current findings on air pollution and health in Poland, with a focus on respiratory diseases, including COVID-19, as well as the Poles’ awareness of air pollution. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched. In total, results from 71 research papers were summarized qualitatively. In Poland, increased air pollution levels are linked to increased general and respiratory disease mortality rates, higher prevalence of respiratory diseases, including asthma, lung cancer and COVID-19 infections, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). The proximity of high traffic areas exacerbates respiratory health problems. People living in more polluted regions (south of Poland) and in the winter season have a higher level of air pollution awareness. There is an urgent need to reduce air pollution levels and increase public awareness of this threat. A larger number of multi-city studies are needed in Poland to consistently track the burden of diseases attributable to air pollution.

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TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors combined remote-sensing observations, model simulations and scenario analyses to simulate the change in the carbon sink capacity of the proposed Kunlun Mountain National Park ecosystem over the past two decades (2000-2020).
Abstract: National parks, as an important type of nature protected areas, are the cornerstone that can effectively maintain biodiversity and mitigate global climate change. At present, China is making every effort to build a nature-protection system, with national parks as the main body, and this approach considers China′s urgent goals of obtaining carbon neutrality and mitigating climate change. It is of great significance to the national carbon-neutralization strategy to accurately predict the carbon sink capacity of national park ecosystems under the background of global change. To evaluate and predict the dynamics of the carbon sink capacity of national parks under climate change and different management measures, we combined remote-sensing observations, model simulations and scenario analyses to simulate the change in the carbon sink capacity of the proposed Kunlun Mountain National Park ecosystem over the past two decades (2000–2020) and the change in the carbon sink capacity under different zoning controls and various climate change scenarios from 2020 to 2060. Our results show that the carbon sink capacity of the proposed Kunlun Mountain National Park area is increasing. Simultaneously, the carbon sink capacity will be improved with the implementation of park management and control measures; which will be increased by 2.04% to 2.13% by 2060 in the research area under multiple climate change scenarios. The research results provide a scientific basis for the establishment and final boundary determination of the proposed Kunlun Mountain National Park.

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TL;DR: Zhang et al. as mentioned in this paper used a regulated model to explore the impact mechanism of air pollution perception on young talent urban settlement intentions, and they found that air pollution perceptions have a significant impact on urban dwelling willingness of young talent, and this impact is achieved through the intermediary effect of residential satisfaction.
Abstract: In recent years, with the public paying more and more attention to the problem of air pollution, the impact of air quality on migration has gradually become a growing concern. However, in the current context of cities’ efforts to “attract talent” in China, research on the impact of air pollution on the flow or dwelling willingness of young talent is relatively limited. Based on the theory of planned behavior and from the perspective of subjective perception, this paper uses a regulated model to explore the impact mechanism of air pollution perception on young talent urban settlement intentions. Taking Hangzhou as a case, this study surveyed 987 individuals who were classified as young talent to explore the impact of air pollution perception on urban settlement intentions in China. The research shows that air pollution perception has a significant impact on young talent urban settlement intentions, and this impact is achieved through the intermediary effect of residential satisfaction. Place attachment of young talent to cities cannot significantly regulate the impact of air pollution perception on residential satisfaction, but it can significantly regulate the relationship between residential satisfaction and urban settlement intentions. That is to say, although place attachment cannot reduce the decline in residential satisfaction brought by air pollution perception, it can weaken the negative impact of air pollution perception on dwelling willingness through a decline in residential satisfaction. This paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the relationship between air quality and young talent settlement intentions.

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TL;DR: In this paper , a literature search on the empirical literature related to teleworking and worker health and well-being, and reviewed articles published after the year 2000 based on the extent to which they had been discussed in prior reviews is performed.
Abstract: Telework (also referred to as telecommuting or remote work), is defined as working outside of the conventional office setting, such as within one’s home or in a remote office location, often using a form of information communication technology to communicate with others (supervisors, coworkers, subordinates, customers, etc.) and to perform work tasks. Remote work increased over the last decade and tremendously in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this article is to review and critically evaluate the existing research about telework and worker health and well-being. In addition, we review and evaluate how engaging in this flexible form of work impacts worker health and well-being. Specifically, we performed a literature search on the empirical literature related to teleworking and worker health and well-being, and reviewed articles published after the year 2000 based on the extent to which they had been discussed in prior reviews. Next, we developed a conceptual framework based on our review of the empirical literature. Our model explains the process by which telework may affect worker health and well-being in reference to individual, work/life/family, organizational, and macro level factors. These components are explained in depth, followed by methodological and fundamental recommendations intended to guide future research, policies, and practices to maximize the benefits and minimize the harms associated with telework, and offer recommendations for future research.

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TL;DR: Evidence is provided to support recommendations for practical resistance training in the elderly related to intensity and volume and theoretical links between aging, sarcopenia, and falls linking to resistance training are provided.
Abstract: As aging continues to grow in our society, sarcopenia and associated fall risk is considered a public health problem since falling is the third cause of chronic disability. Falls are negatively related to functionality and independence and positively associated with morbidity and mortality. The cost of treatment of secondary injuries related to falls is high. For example, one in ten fall incidents leads to bone fractures and several other comorbidities. As demonstrated by several experimental studies, adopting a more active lifestyle is critical for reducing the number of fall episodes and their consequences. Therefore, it is essential to debate the proven physical exercise methods to reduce falls and fall-related effects. Since muscle mass, muscle strength, bone density, and cartilage function may play significant roles in daily activities, resistance training may positively and significantly affect the elderly. This narrative review aimed to examine current evidence on existing resistance training using resistance machines and bodyweight or low-cost equipment for the elderly and how they are related to falls and fall-related consequences. We provide theoretical links between aging, sarcopenia, and falls linking to resistance training and offer practical suggestions to exercise professionals seeking to promote regular physical exercise to promote quality of life in this population. Exercise programs focusing on strength may significantly influence muscle mass and muscle strength, minimizing functional decline and risk of falling. Resistance training programs should be customized to each elderly according to age, sex, and other fundamental and individual aspects. This narrative review provides evidence to support recommendations for practical resistance training in the elderly related to intensity and volume. A properly designed resistance training program with adequate instructions and technique is safe for the elderly. It should include an individualized approach based on existing equipment (i.e., body weight, resistance machines). Existing literature shows that exercise performance towards 2–3 sets of 1–2 exercises per major muscle group, performing 5–8 repetitions or achieving intensities of 50–80% of 1RM, 2–3 times per week should be recommended, followed by training principles such as periodization and progression. Bearing this in mind, health and exercise professionals should combine efforts focusing on efficient strategies to reduce falls among the elderly and promote higher experiences of well-being at advanced stages in life.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the influence range of the abutment pressure of the super high mining height working face was measured on site and the numerical simulation was carried out, the roadway support structure was analyzed, and the improvement measures were proposed.
Abstract: Under the condition of the shallow coal seam, the laws of roof activity after large mining height longwall face mining and prevention measures for large-area roof weighting are problems that need to be solved urgently. In the background of the super large mining height working face in the upper 108 working face of Jinjitan Coal Mine 12-2, the spatial distribution characteristics of the development and change of the mining-induced abutment pressure and the related support design in the 8.2 m super large mining height and fully mechanized mining face were conducted. It reveals the distribution characteristics of the dynamic stress field and internal and external stress fields. The influence range of the abutment pressure of the super high mining height working face was measured on site. The numerical simulation is carried out, the roadway support structure is analyzed, and the improvement measures are proposed. The research results demonstrate that: The influence range of abutment pressure is 234 m, the obvious influence range of the leading pressure is 47–60 m, and the peak position of the influence of the leading pressure is 15–20 m. The 5 m range is the lateral inward stress field of the coal pillar, the 10–15 m range is the outward stress field of the coal pillar, and the 20 m range is the original rock stress field of the coal pillar. Therefore, it is proposed that the reasonable size of the coal pillar for roadway protection is 20–22 m. Adjusting the distance between screw steel and FRP bolts from 1000 mm to 1200 mm, the length of the roof prestressed anchor cable should be appropriately reduced to 5.5–6 m according to the lithology of the roof.