Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
About: Symmetry is an academic journal published by Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Computer science & Mathematics. It has an ISSN identifier of 2073-8994. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 8772 publications have been published receiving 85331 citations. The journal is also known as: lack of asymmetry.
TL;DR: This research indicates that the proposed deep learning model provides a better solution in disease control for apple leaf diseases with high accuracy and a faster convergence rate, and that the image generation technique proposed in this paper can enhance the robustness of the convolutional neural network model.
Abstract: Mosaic, Rust, Brown spot, and Alternaria leaf spot are the four common types of apple leaf diseases. Early diagnosis and accurate identification of apple leaf diseases can control the spread of infection and ensure the healthy development of the apple industry. The existing research uses complex image preprocessing and cannot guarantee high recognition rates for apple leaf diseases. This paper proposes an accurate identifying approach for apple leaf diseases based on deep convolutional neural networks. It includes generating sufficient pathological images and designing a novel architecture of a deep convolutional neural network based on AlexNet to detect apple leaf diseases. Using a dataset of 13,689 images of diseased apple leaves, the proposed deep convolutional neural network model is trained to identify the four common apple leaf diseases. Under the hold-out test set, the experimental results show that the proposed disease identification approach based on the convolutional neural network achieves an overall accuracy of 97.62%, the model parameters are reduced by 51,206,928 compared with those in the standard AlexNet model, and the accuracy of the proposed model with generated pathological images obtains an improvement of 10.83%. This research indicates that the proposed deep learning model provides a better solution in disease control for apple leaf diseases with high accuracy and a faster convergence rate, and that the image generation technique proposed in this paper can enhance the robustness of the convolutional neural network model.
TL;DR: The proposed VGG-19 DNN based DR model outperformed the AlexNet and spatial invariant feature transform (SIFT) in terms of classification accuracy and computational time.
Abstract: Automated medical image analysis is an emerging field of research that identifies the disease with the help of imaging technology. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal disease that is diagnosed in diabetic patients. Deep neural network (DNN) is widely used to classify diabetic retinopathy from fundus images collected from suspected persons. The proposed DR classification system achieves a symmetrically optimized solution through the combination of a Gaussian mixture model (GMM), visual geometry group network (VGGNet), singular value decomposition (SVD) and principle component analysis (PCA), and softmax, for region segmentation, high dimensional feature extraction, feature selection and fundus image classification, respectively. The experiments were performed using a standard KAGGLE dataset containing 35,126 images. The proposed VGG-19 DNN based DR model outperformed the AlexNet and spatial invariant feature transform (SIFT) in terms of classification accuracy and computational time. Utilization of PCA and SVD feature selection with fully connected (FC) layers demonstrated the classification accuracies of 92.21%, 98.34%, 97.96%, and 98.13% for FC7-PCA, FC7-SVD, FC8-PCA, and FC8-SVD, respectively.
TL;DR: The main idea is to collect all the possible images for COVID-19 that exists until the writing of this research and use the GAN network to generate more images to help in the detection of this virus from the available X-rays images with the highest accuracy possible.
Abstract: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is putting healthcare systems across the world under unprecedented and increasing pressure according to the World Health Organization (WHO). With the advances in computer algorithms and especially Artificial Intelligence, the detection of this type of virus in the early stages will help in fast recovery and help in releasing the pressure off healthcare systems. In this paper, a GAN with deep transfer learning for coronavirus detection in chest X-ray images is presented. The lack of datasets for COVID-19 especially in chest X-rays images is the main motivation of this scientific study. The main idea is to collect all the possible images for COVID-19 that exists until the writing of this research and use the GAN network to generate more images to help in the detection of this virus from the available X-rays images with the highest accuracy possible. The dataset used in this research was collected from different sources and it is available for researchers to download and use it. The number of images in the collected dataset is 307 images for four different types of classes. The classes are the COVID-19, normal, pneumonia bacterial, and pneumonia virus. Three deep transfer models are selected in this research for investigation. The models are the Alexnet, Googlenet, and Restnet18. Those models are selected for investigation through this research as it contains a small number of layers on their architectures, this will result in reducing the complexity, the consumed memory and the execution time for the proposed model. Three case scenarios are tested through the paper, the first scenario includes four classes from the dataset, while the second scenario includes 3 classes and the third scenario includes two classes. All the scenarios include the COVID-19 class as it is the main target of this research to be detected. In the first scenario, the Googlenet is selected to be the main deep transfer model as it achieves 80.6% in testing accuracy. In the second scenario, the Alexnet is selected to be the main deep transfer model as it achieves 85.2% in testing accuracy, while in the third scenario which includes two classes (COVID-19, and normal), Googlenet is selected to be the main deep transfer model as it achieves 100% in testing accuracy and 99.9% in the validation accuracy. All the performance measurement strengthens the obtained results through the research.
TL;DR: The results show that FUCOM provides better results than the BWM and AHP methods, when the relation between consistency and the required number of the comparisons of the criteria are taken into consideration.
Abstract: In this paper, a new multi-criteria problem solving method—the Full Consistency Method (FUCOM)—is proposed. The model implies the definition of two groups of constraints that need to satisfy the optimal values of weight coefficients. The first group of constraints is the condition that the relations of the weight coefficients of criteria should be equal to the comparative priorities of the criteria. The second group of constraints is defined on the basis of the conditions of mathematical transitivity. After defining the constraints and solving the model, in addition to optimal weight values, a deviation from full consistency (DFC) is obtained. The degree of DFC is the deviation value of the obtained weight coefficients from the estimated comparative priorities of the criteria. In addition, DFC is also the reliability confirmation of the obtained weights of criteria. In order to illustrate the proposed model and evaluate its performance, FUCOM was tested on several numerical examples from the literature. The model validation was performed by comparing it with the other subjective models (the Best Worst Method (BWM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)), based on the pairwise comparisons of the criteria and the validation of the results by using DFC. The results show that FUCOM provides better results than the BWM and AHP methods, when the relation between consistency and the required number of the comparisons of the criteria are taken into consideration. The main advantages of FUCOM in relation to the existing multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods are as follows: (1) a significantly smaller number of pairwise comparisons (only n − 1), (2) a consistent pairwise comparison of criteria, and (3) the calculation of the reliable values of criteria weight coefficients, which contribute to rational judgment.
TL;DR: This article is considered to be important, as it is the first comprehensive study in which sampling strategy, appropriate distance metric, and the structure of the network are systematically analyzed and evaluated as a whole and supported by comparing the quantitative results of the methods.
Abstract: Metric learning aims to measure the similarity among samples while using an optimal distance metric for learning tasks. Metric learning methods, which generally use a linear projection, are limited in solving real-world problems demonstrating non-linear characteristics. Kernel approaches are utilized in metric learning to address this problem. In recent years, deep metric learning, which provides a better solution for nonlinear data through activation functions, has attracted researchers’ attention in many different areas. This article aims to reveal the importance of deep metric learning and the problems dealt with in this field in the light of recent studies. As far as the research conducted in this field are concerned, most existing studies that are inspired by Siamese and Triplet networks are commonly used to correlate among samples while using shared weights in deep metric learning. The success of these networks is based on their capacity to understand the similarity relationship among samples. Moreover, sampling strategy, appropriate distance metric, and the structure of the network are the challenging factors for researchers to improve the performance of the network model. This article is considered to be important, as it is the first comprehensive study in which these factors are systematically analyzed and evaluated as a whole and supported by comparing the quantitative results of the methods.