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International Joint Conference on Neural Networks

01 Jan 1993-
About: The article was published on 1993-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 668 citations till now.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective is presented, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners.
Abstract: Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exploratory data analysis. However, clustering is a difficult problem combinatorially, and differences in assumptions and contexts in different communities has made the transfer of useful generic concepts and methodologies slow to occur. This paper presents an overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners. We present a taxonomy of clustering techniques, and identify cross-cutting themes and recent advances. We also describe some important applications of clustering algorithms such as image segmentation, object recognition, and information retrieval.

14,054 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An introduction to metabolites, metabolomes, metabolomics and the role of MS and NMR spectroscopy will be provided and the applications of metabolomics in mammalian systems biology for the study of the health-disease continuum, drug efficacy and toxicity and dietary effects on mammalian health will be reviewed.
Abstract: The study of biological systems in a holistic manner (systems biology) is increasingly being viewed as a necessity to provide qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the emergent properties of the complete system. Systems biology performs studies focussed on the complex interactions of system components; emphasising the whole system rather than the individual parts. Many perturbations to mammalian systems (diet, disease, drugs) are multi-factorial and the study of small parts of the system is insufficient to understand the complete phenotypic changes induced. Metabolomics is one functional level tool being employed to investigate the complex interactions of metabolites with other metabolites (metabolism) but also the regulatory role metabolites provide through interaction with genes, transcripts and proteins (e.g. allosteric regulation). Technological developments are the driving force behind advances in scientific knowledge. Recent advances in the two analytical platforms of mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have driven forward the discipline of metabolomics. In this critical review, an introduction to metabolites, metabolomes, metabolomics and the role of MS and NMR spectroscopy will be provided. The applications of metabolomics in mammalian systems biology for the study of the health–disease continuum, drug efficacy and toxicity and dietary effects on mammalian health will be reviewed. The current limitations and future goals of metabolomics in systems biology will also be discussed (374 references).

721 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A surprisingly simple mechanism that assigns blame by multiplying errors by even random synaptic weights is presented, which can transmit teaching signals across multiple layers of neurons and performs as effectively as backpropagation on a variety of tasks.
Abstract: The brain processes information through multiple layers of neurons. This deep architecture is representationally powerful, but complicates learning because it is difficult to identify the responsible neurons when a mistake is made. In machine learning, the backpropagation algorithm assigns blame by multiplying error signals with all the synaptic weights on each neuron’s axon and further downstream. However, this involves a precise, symmetric backward connectivity pattern, which is thought to be impossible in the brain. Here we demonstrate that this strong architectural constraint is not required for effective error propagation. We present a surprisingly simple mechanism that assigns blame by multiplying errors by even random synaptic weights. This mechanism can transmit teaching signals across multiple layers of neurons and performs as effectively as backpropagation on a variety of tasks. Our results help reopen questions about how the brain could use error signals and dispel long-held assumptions about algorithmic constraints on learning. Multi-layered neural architectures that implement learning require elaborate mechanisms for symmetric backpropagation of errors that are biologically implausible. Here the authors propose a simple resolution to this problem of blame assignment that works even with feedback using random synaptic weights.

690 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Feb 1995-Science
TL;DR: A language-independent means of gauging topical similarity in unrestricted text by combining information derived from n-grams with a simple vector-space technique that makes sorting, categorization, and retrieval feasible in a large multilingual collection of documents.
Abstract: A language-independent means of gauging topical similarity in unrestricted text is described. The method combines information derived from n-grams (consecutive sequences of n characters) with a simple vector-space technique that makes sorting, categorization, and retrieval feasible in a large multilingual collection of documents. No prior information about document content or language is required. Context, as it applies to document similarity, can be accommodated by a well-defined procedure. When an existing document is used as an exemplar, the completeness and accuracy with which topically related documents are retrieved is comparable to that of the best existing systems. The results of a formal evaluation are discussed, and examples are given using documents in English and Japanese.

630 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective is presented, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners.
Abstract: Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exploratory data analysis. However, clustering is a difficult problem combinatorially, and differences in assumptions and contexts in different communities has made the transfer of useful generic concepts and methodologies slow to occur. This paper presents an overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners. We present a taxonomy of clustering techniques, and identify cross-cutting themes and recent advances. We also describe some important applications of clustering algorithms such as image segmentation, object recognition, and information retrieval.

14,054 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An introduction to metabolites, metabolomes, metabolomics and the role of MS and NMR spectroscopy will be provided and the applications of metabolomics in mammalian systems biology for the study of the health-disease continuum, drug efficacy and toxicity and dietary effects on mammalian health will be reviewed.
Abstract: The study of biological systems in a holistic manner (systems biology) is increasingly being viewed as a necessity to provide qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the emergent properties of the complete system. Systems biology performs studies focussed on the complex interactions of system components; emphasising the whole system rather than the individual parts. Many perturbations to mammalian systems (diet, disease, drugs) are multi-factorial and the study of small parts of the system is insufficient to understand the complete phenotypic changes induced. Metabolomics is one functional level tool being employed to investigate the complex interactions of metabolites with other metabolites (metabolism) but also the regulatory role metabolites provide through interaction with genes, transcripts and proteins (e.g. allosteric regulation). Technological developments are the driving force behind advances in scientific knowledge. Recent advances in the two analytical platforms of mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have driven forward the discipline of metabolomics. In this critical review, an introduction to metabolites, metabolomes, metabolomics and the role of MS and NMR spectroscopy will be provided. The applications of metabolomics in mammalian systems biology for the study of the health–disease continuum, drug efficacy and toxicity and dietary effects on mammalian health will be reviewed. The current limitations and future goals of metabolomics in systems biology will also be discussed (374 references).

721 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A surprisingly simple mechanism that assigns blame by multiplying errors by even random synaptic weights is presented, which can transmit teaching signals across multiple layers of neurons and performs as effectively as backpropagation on a variety of tasks.
Abstract: The brain processes information through multiple layers of neurons. This deep architecture is representationally powerful, but complicates learning because it is difficult to identify the responsible neurons when a mistake is made. In machine learning, the backpropagation algorithm assigns blame by multiplying error signals with all the synaptic weights on each neuron’s axon and further downstream. However, this involves a precise, symmetric backward connectivity pattern, which is thought to be impossible in the brain. Here we demonstrate that this strong architectural constraint is not required for effective error propagation. We present a surprisingly simple mechanism that assigns blame by multiplying errors by even random synaptic weights. This mechanism can transmit teaching signals across multiple layers of neurons and performs as effectively as backpropagation on a variety of tasks. Our results help reopen questions about how the brain could use error signals and dispel long-held assumptions about algorithmic constraints on learning. Multi-layered neural architectures that implement learning require elaborate mechanisms for symmetric backpropagation of errors that are biologically implausible. Here the authors propose a simple resolution to this problem of blame assignment that works even with feedback using random synaptic weights.

690 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Feb 1995-Science
TL;DR: A language-independent means of gauging topical similarity in unrestricted text by combining information derived from n-grams with a simple vector-space technique that makes sorting, categorization, and retrieval feasible in a large multilingual collection of documents.
Abstract: A language-independent means of gauging topical similarity in unrestricted text is described. The method combines information derived from n-grams (consecutive sequences of n characters) with a simple vector-space technique that makes sorting, categorization, and retrieval feasible in a large multilingual collection of documents. No prior information about document content or language is required. Context, as it applies to document similarity, can be accommodated by a well-defined procedure. When an existing document is used as an exemplar, the completeness and accuracy with which topically related documents are retrieved is comparable to that of the best existing systems. The results of a formal evaluation are discussed, and examples are given using documents in English and Japanese.

630 citations