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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32072-9_83

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

01 Jan 2013-pp 772-779
About: The article was published on 2013-01-01. It has received 12 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Polyethylene terephthalate.

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Citations
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40691-014-0001-X
Sang Ho Park1, Seong Hun Kim1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This study reviews the problems in the use and disposal of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and includes the concise background of virgin and recycled PET as well as their possible applications. The current state of knowledge with respect to PET recycling method is presented. Recycling of PET is the most desirable method for waste management, providing an opportunity for reductions in oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and PET waste requiring disposal because of its non-degradability. Advanced technologies and systems for reducing contamination, mechanical and chemical recycling, and their applications are discussed, and the possibility of diverting the majority of PET waste from landfills or incineration to recycling is suggested.

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Topics: Incineration (51%)

142 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2015.03.025
Abstract: This work investigates the potential for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from wastewater, from a techno-economic and an environmental perspective, examining scale-up opportunities and bottlenecks prior to commercialisation Conceptual process design, economic, environmental impacts and sensitivity analysis are developed for one fermentation process and three downstream processing routes, based on alkali, surfactant-hypochlorite and solvent treatments Environmentally and cost-wise, the alkali treatment is the most favourable with production costs of 140€/kg PHB, global warming potential of 24kgCO2-eq/kg PHB and non-renewable energy use of 106MJ/kg PHB The solvent-based process yields the highest costs and environmental burdens: 195€/kg PHB, 430kgCO2-eq/kg PHB and 156MJ/kg PHB The production of PHB from wastewater is identified as an interesting alternative to pure culture-polyhydroxyalkanoates production from sugars However, these results are not yet competitive with those for the petrochemical counterparts Additional performance improvements may be possible, through process integration and optimisation

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94 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/BBB.1368
Li Shen1, Ernst Worrell1, Martin Kumar Patel1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the environmental profiles of petrochemical PET, (partially) bio-based PET, recycled PET, and recycled (partially) bio-based PET, and compare them with other bio-based materials, namely PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based polyester) and man-made cellulose fibers (cellulose fiber produced from wood pulp, i.e. Viscose, Modal and Tencel). Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on polymers, fibers and bottles made from these materials are reviewed. Only non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are con- sidered. The scope is cradle to grave excluding the use phase. The results show that both recycled and bio-based ma terials offer important environmental benefits over single-use petrochemical PET. Among the four PET product systems studied, recycled (partially) bio-based PET has the lowest impacts, followed by recycled PET, (partially) bio- based PET, and petrochemical PET. PLA and man-made cellulose fibers produced in an integrated plant have lower impacts than both petrochemical PET and bio-based PET. The impacts of recycled products are strongly influenced by the choice of the allocation method applied to open-loop recycling. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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60 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/19440049.2015.1128566
Roland Franz1, Margit Gmeiner1, Anita Gruner1, Diana Kemmer1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are widely used as packaging material for natural mineral water. However, trace levels of acetaldehyde can migrate into natural mineral water during the shelf life and might influence the taste of the PET bottled water. 2Aminobenzamide is widely used during PET bottle production as a scavenging agent for acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was the determination of the migration kinetics of 2aminobenzamide into natural mineral water as well as into 20% ethanol. From the migration kinetics, the diffusion coefficients of 2-aminobenzamide in PET at 23 and 40°C were determined to be 4.2 ×1 0 �16 and 4.2 × 10 �15 cm 2 s –1 , respectively. The diffusion coefficient for 20% ethanol at 40°C was determined to be 7.7 × 10 �15 cm 2 s –1 , which indicates that 20% ethanol is causing swelling of the PET polymer. From a comparison of migration values between 23 and 40°C, acceleration factors of 9.7 when using water as contact medium and 18.1 for 20% ethanol as simulant can be derived for definition of appropriate accelerated test conditions at 40°C. The European Union regulatory acceleration test based on 80 kJ mol –1 as conservative activation energy overestimates the experimentally determined acceleration rates by a factor of 1.6 and 3.1, respectively.

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12 Citations


References
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0022-2852(59)90048-7
C. Y. Liang1, Samuel Krimm1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Infrared spectra of polyethylene terephthalate and three of its deuterated analogs have been obtained in the region of 70 to 3600 cm−1, polarized spectra having been obtained down to 330 cm−1. On the basis of analysis of the predicted spectrum, and with the aid of data from benzene and substituted benzenes, a complete assignment of the spectrum has been made. This assignment suggests a modification of the proposed chain structure of this polymer. It also leads to the conclusion that the changes in the spectrum which occur upon crystallization of the polymer are not associated with different isomeric forms of the OCH2CH2O portion of the chain, but rather with changes in the symmetry and resonance characteristics of the substituted benzenoid ring frame-work.

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118 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/MA011492I
03 Jan 2002-Macromolecules
Abstract: Front-surface external reflection infrared spectroscopy was used to study a set of samples of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) corresponding to various states of order: highly amorphous, drawn at 80 °C to different draw ratios, and thermally crystallized under different conditions. Kramers−Kronig transformation provided high-quality spectra that included an accurate representation of the most intense bands in the spectrum, which are generally saturated or distorted in transmission and internal reflection spectra. Factor analysis indicated the presence of three principal components in the spectra, and by taking linear combinations of the three principal factors, it was possible to generate three distinct physically meaningful basis spectra designated G, TC, and TX. The G spectrum corresponds to a gauche conformation of the ethylene glycol moiety, which is predominant in the amorphous state, while the other two correspond to a trans glycol conformation. The TC spectrum corresponds to the true crystalline...

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Topics: Infrared spectroscopy (54%), Ethylene glycol (54%)

93 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1366/0003702944027877
Abstract: The use of front-surface specular reflection FT-IR spectroscopy to characterize surface orientation in thick samples of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been investigated. It has been shown that, even for samples whose surface uniformity is less than perfect, absorption index spectra of excellent quality are obtained from the Kramers-Kronig transformation. These spectra provide detailed information, both qualitative and quantitative, on the molecular conformation and orientation of the polymer. Of particular interest are the strongly absorbing bands such as the carbonyl and ester peaks, which are generally saturated in transmission spectra. The reflection technique opens up the possibility of obtaining new information on conformational changes and orientation in PET through a detailed study of these peaks.

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Topics: Specular reflection (55%), Infrared spectroscopy (52%), Absorption spectroscopy (51%) ...read more

88 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JRS.1250250509
Abstract: Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been proved to be an adequate technique for the study of the quantitative structural changes which take place in poly(ethylene terephthalate) on annealing. The two-phase conformational model proposed previously in the infrared domain using photoacoustic FTIR has been extended to the Raman domain. Moreover, typical Raman spectral changes with the thermal process have been directly related to conformational rather than crystallinity changes. The correlation between the percentage of the trans isomer obtained by FT-Raman and skin layer crystallinity values obtained by differential scanning calorimetry allows the crystalline and amorphous trans isomer contents to be obtained and their evolution with the annealing process to be followed.

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Topics: Raman spectroscopy (60%), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (57%), Crystallinity (53%) ...read more

42 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1366/0003702963906249
Abstract: Dynamic infrared spectra of uniaxially drawn poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) under a sinusoidal strain were examined. A very intense dynamic band at 973 cm-1 assigned to the trans C-O stretching mode indicated stress-induced high mobility around the C-O bond in the ethylene glycol units. It was supposed that derivative-like skeletal bands observed in the dynamic spectra originated from the stress-induced frequency shift. Two-dimensional correlation analyses of the dynamic spectra were also carried out and revealed that the phenyl ring 18a band at 1018 cm-1 and the phenyl ring 19b band at 1410 cm-1 were composed of three and two independent components, respectively. The correlation peaks between the phenyl ring and CH2 vibrational modes showed that orientation of the methylene group in the ethylene glycol unit, induced by mechanical stretching, is faster than that of the phenyl ring in the terephthalate unit.

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30 Citations


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