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Institution

National Research Council

GovernmentWashington D.C., District of Columbia, United States
About: National Research Council is a(n) government organization based out in Washington D.C., District of Columbia, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Laser. The organization has 36517 authors who have published 76001 publication(s) receiving 2437211 citation(s). The organization is also known as: the National Academies & National Research Council.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Paolo Giannozzi1, Stefano Baroni2, Stefano Baroni3, Nicola Bonini4  +37 moreInstitutions (13)
Abstract: QUANTUM ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). The acronym ESPRESSO stands for opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization. It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General Public License. QUANTUM ESPRESSO builds upon newly-restructured electronic-structure codes that have been developed and tested by some of the original authors of novel electronic-structure algorithms and applied in the last twenty years by some of the leading materials modeling groups worldwide. Innovation and efficiency are still its main focus, with special attention paid to massively parallel architectures, and a great effort being devoted to user friendliness. QUANTUM ESPRESSO is evolving towards a distribution of independent and interoperable codes in the spirit of an open-source project, where researchers active in the field of electronic-structure calculations are encouraged to participate in the project by contributing their own codes or by implementing their own ideas into existing codes.

15,767 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
David N. Spergel1, Licia Verde1, Hiranya V. Peiris1, Eiichiro Komatsu1  +16 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: WMAP precision data enable accurate testing of cosmological models. We find that the emerging standard model of cosmology, a flat � -dominated universe seeded by a nearly scale-invariant adiabatic Gaussian fluctuations, fits the WMAP data. For the WMAP data only, the best-fit parameters are h ¼ 0:72 � 0:05, � bh 2 ¼ 0:024 � 0:001, � mh 2 ¼ 0:14 � 0:02, � ¼ 0:166 þ0:076 � 0:071 , ns ¼ 0:99 � 0:04, and � 8 ¼ 0:9 � 0:1. With parameters fixed only by WMAP data, we can fit finer scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) measure- ments and measurements of large-scale structure (galaxy surveys and the Lyforest). This simple model is also consistent with a host of other astronomical measurements: its inferred age of the universe is consistent with stellar ages, the baryon/photon ratio is consistent with measurements of the (D/H) ratio, and the inferred Hubble constant is consistent with local observations of the expansion rate. We then fit the model parameters to a combination of WMAP data with other finer scale CMB experiments (ACBAR and CBI), 2dFGRS measurements, and Lyforest data to find the model's best-fit cosmological parameters: h ¼ 0:71 þ0:04 � 0:03 , � bh 2 ¼ 0:0224 � 0:0009, � mh 2 ¼ 0:135 þ0:008 � 0:009 , � ¼ 0:17 � 0:06, ns(0.05 Mpc � 1 )=0 :93 � 0:03, and � 8 ¼ 0:84 � 0:04. WMAP's best determination of � ¼ 0:17 � 0:04 arises directly from the temperature- polarization (TE) data and not from this model fit, but they are consistent. These parameters imply that the age of the universe is 13:7 � 0:2 Gyr. With the Lyforest data, the model favors but does not require a slowly varying spectral index. The significance of this running index is sensitive to the uncertainties in the Ly� forest. By combining WMAP data with other astronomical data, we constrain the geometry of the universe, � tot ¼ 1:02 � 0:02, and the equation of state of the dark energy, w < � 0:78 (95% confidence limit assuming w �� 1). The combination of WMAP and 2dFGRS data constrains the energy density in stable neutrinos: � � h 2 < 0:0072 (95% confidence limit). For three degenerate neutrino species, this limit implies that their mass is less than 0.23 eV (95% confidence limit). The WMAP detection of early reionization rules out warm dark matter. Subject headings: cosmic microwave background — cosmological parameters — cosmology: observations — early universe On-line material: color figure

10,236 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Adam Auton1, Gonçalo R. Abecasis2, David Altshuler3, Richard Durbin4  +514 moreInstitutions (90)
01 Oct 2015-Nature
TL;DR: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations, and has reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-generation sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping.
Abstract: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.

9,821 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
O.L. Gamborg1, R. A. Miller1, K. Ojima1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The nutrient requirements of suspension cultures from soybean root have been investigated, and a simple medium consisting of mineral salts, sucrose, vitamins and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4- d) has been designed.
Abstract: The nutrient requirements of suspension cultures from soybean root have been investigated, and a simple medium consisting of mineral salts, sucrose, vitamins and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4- d ) has been designed. The cells required thiamine, 2,4- d and ammonium in addition to the usual mineral salts and sucrose. Optimum concentrations of nitrate and ammonium were 25 and 2 m M respectively. The highest yield of cells was achieved at an initial pH of 4.5–5.5. During the growth cycle the pH gradually increased to 6.0–6.2.

9,034 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Shuichi Nosé1Institutions (1)
10 Jun 1984-Molecular Physics
Abstract: A molecular dynamics simulation method which can generate configurations belonging to the canonical (T, V, N) ensemble or the constant temperature constant pressure (T, P, N) ensemble, is proposed. The physical system of interest consists of N particles (f degrees of freedom), to which an external, macroscopic variable and its conjugate momentum are added. This device allows the total energy of the physical system to fluctuate. The equilibrium distribution of the energy coincides with the canonical distribution both in momentum and in coordinate space. The method is tested for an atomic fluid (Ar) and works well.

7,038 citations


Authors

Showing all 36517 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Luigi Ferrucci1931601181199
David A. Weitz1781038114182
Marc W. Kirschner162457102145
Ralph A. DeFronzo160759132993
Wolfgang Wagner1562342123391
Roger Blandford15670490181
Thomas Meitinger155716108491
James M. Tiedje150688102287
Fabio Finelli147542111128
Markus Ackermann14661071071
Andres Metspalu144583101156
Olaf Reimer14471674359
A. Reimer14150967489
John L.R. Rubenstein14040561860
Nancy C. Andreasen13860473175
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202287
20214,980
20204,778
20194,136
20183,764
20173,663