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Journal ArticleDOI

Predictions of Sediment Toxicity Using Consensus-Based Freshwater Sediment Quality Guidelines

01 Jul 2001-Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Arch Environ Contam Toxicol)-Vol. 41, Iss: 1, pp 8-21

TL;DR: Analytical results indicate that the consensus-based PECs can be used to reliably predict toxicity of sediments on both a regional and national basis and that the different patterns in toxicity may be the result of unique chemical signals associated with individual contaminants in samples.

AbstractThe objectives of this study were to compare approaches for evaluating the combined effects of chemical mixtures on the toxicity in field-collected sediments and to evaluate the ability of consensus-based probable effect concentrations (PECs) to predict toxicity in a freshwater database on both a national and regional geographic basis. A database was developed from 92 published reports, which included a total of 1,657 samples with high-quality matching sediment toxicity and chemistry data from across North America. The database was comprised primarily of 10- to 14-day or 28- to 42-day toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (designated as the HA10 or HA28 tests) and 10- to 14-day toxicity tests with the midges Chironomus tentans or C. riparius (designated as the CS10 test). Mean PEC quotients were calculated to provide an overall measure of chemical contamination and to support an evaluation of the combined effects of multiple contaminants in sediments. There was an overall increase in the incidence of toxicity with an increase in the mean quotients in all three tests. A consistent increase in the toxicity in all three tests occurred at a mean quotient > 0.5, however, the overall incidence of toxicity was greater in the HA28 test compared to the short-term tests. The longer-term tests, in which survival and growth are measured, tend to be more sensitive than the shorter-term tests, with acute to chronic ratios on the order of six indicated for H. azteca. Different patterns were observed among the various procedures used to calculate mean quotients. For example, in the HA28 test, a relatively abrupt increase in toxicity was associated with elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone or with elevated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) alone, compared to the pattern of a gradual increase in toxicity observed with quotients calculated using a combination of metals, PAHs, and PCBs. These analyses indicate that the different patterns in toxicity may be the result of unique chemical signals associated with individual contaminants in samples. Though mean quotients can be used to classify samples as toxic or nontoxic, individual quotients might be useful in helping identify substances that may be causing or substantially contributing to the observed toxicity. An increase in the incidence of toxicity was observed with increasing mean quotients within most of the regions, basins, and areas in North America for all three toxicity tests. The results of these analyses indicate that the consensus-based PECs can be used to reliably predict toxicity of sediments on both a regional and national basis.

Topics: Toxicity (53%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Fine-grained sediments contaminated with complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemical contaminants can be toxic in laboratory tests and/or cause adverse impacts to resident benthic communities. Effects-based, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) have been developed over the past 20 years to aid in the interpretation of the relationships between chemical contamination and measures of adverse biological effects. Mean sediment quality guideline quotients (mSQGQ) can be calculated by dividing the concentrations of chemicals in sediments by their respective SQGs and calculating the mean of the quotients for the individual chemicals. The resulting index provides a method of accounting for both the presence and the concentrations of multiple chemicals in sediments relative to their effects-based guidelines. Analyses of considerable amounts of data demonstrated that both the incidence and magnitude of toxicity in laboratory tests and the incidence of impairment to benthic communities increases incrementally with increasing mSQGQs. Such concentration/response relationships provide a basis for estimating toxicological risks to sediment-dwelling organisms associated with exposure to contaminated sediments with a known degree of accuracy. This sediment quality assessment tool has been used in numerous surveys and studies since 1994. Nevertheless, mean SQGQs have some important limitations and underlying assumptions that should be understood by sediment quality assessors. This paper provides an overview of the derivation methods and some of the principal advantages, assumptions, and limitations in the use of this sediment assessmenttool. Ideally, mean SQGQs should be included with other measures including results of toxicity tests and benthic community surveys to provide a weight of evidence when assessing the relative quality of contaminated sediments.

388 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concentration of heavy metals in several sites, assessed in water, soil and sediment samples, affected by different pollution sources are reviewed, showing how human activities impact natural media and how the pollution spreads.
Abstract: Heavy metal pollution is a nefarious issue with implications for life. Heavy metals are natural occurring elements, having both natural and anthropogenic sources. The latter are however the most significant, releasing greater amounts of these pollutants in more toxic and mobile forms. Their chemistry and dynamics in the ecosystems are presented, and the relation to the pollution problematic thereof is discussed. The concentration of heavy metals in several sites, assessed in water, soil and sediment samples, affected by different pollution sources are reviewed. These evidence how human activities impact natural media and how the pollution spreads. The pollution in each media is assessed by the concentration relative to drinking and irrigation water guidelines, and by the geoaccumulation index of soils and sediments. It is found that ore extraction and processing and metallurgical industries stand atop the most polluting sources. Given the dynamics of heavy metal cations and that, most of these are released in liquid effluents, wastewater treatment techniques for the removal of heavy metals are also surveyed and critically discussed. Economic viability at a large municipal scale and the ability to comply with strict regulations are the determining factors in the selection of these techniques. A critical discussion on the viability of such techniques is made, reviewing some literature studies and commenting on their applicability on the previously found polluted media.

216 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Upward trends in PAH concentrations, the strong association of PAH with urban settings, and rapid urbanization occurring in the United States suggest that PAHs could surpass chlorinated hydrocarbons in the threat they pose to aquatic biota in urban streams and lakes.
Abstract: A shift in national policy toward stronger environmental protection began in the United States in about 1970. Conversely, urban land use, population, energy consumption, and vehicle use have increased greatly since then. To assess the effects of these changes on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey used sediment cores to reconstruct water-quality histories for 38 urban and reference lakes across the United States. Cores were age-dated, and concentration profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons were tested statistically. Significant trends in total DDT, p,p‘-DDE, and total PCBs were all downward. Trends in chlordane were split evenly between upward and downward, and trends in PAHs were mostly upward. Significant trends did not occur in about one-half of cases tested. Concentrations of p,p‘-DDE, p,p‘-DDD, and PCBs were about one-half as likely to exceed the probable effect concentration (PEC), a sediment quality guideline, in sediments deposited in the 1990s as i...

193 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Weight of evidence (WOE) frameworks for integrating and interpreting multiple lines of evidence are discussed, focusing on sediment quality assessments, and introducing a series of ten papers on WOE. Approaches to WOE include individual lines of evidence (LOE) as well as combined LOE (indices, statistical summarization, logic systems, scoring systems, and best professional judgment [BPJ]). The application of WOE, based on multiple LOE, is discussed relative to the published literature. Fully implementing WOE requires consideration of six main LOE in sediment (or other assessments); these LOE generally correspond to other causality considerations including Koch's Postulates. However, the issue of sediment stability is an additional consideration, and the use of tabular decision matrices is recommended in a logic system to address LOE described by others as “analogy”, “plausibility”, or “logical and scientific sense.” Three examples of logic system WOE determinations based on the Sediment Quality Triad and ...

183 citations


Cites background from "Predictions of Sediment Toxicity Us..."

  • ...There are various approaches to such summarization (Beller et al. 1986; MacDonald et al. 1996; Long et al. 1998; Ingersoll et al. 2001)....

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Journal Article
Abstract: The distribution, controlling geochemical factors and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cua Ong Habor, Ha Long Bay (Vietnam) were investigated. 36 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed for major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, S), heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), grain size composition and pH. Spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals as well as their controlling factors were elucidated based on geochemical mapping and statistical methods such as the Pearson Product- Moment linear correlation and Factor Analysis. The results illustrated that the distribution patterns of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly controlled by organic matter and clay minerals and determined by the distribution of the fine- grained fraction (Φ < 63 µm) in the sediments. In contrast, Fe and Mn compounds seem to exert some control on the distribution of Co. Carbonates partly control the distribution of Mn, but are not important with respect to the other studied heavy metals. The contamination status by heavy metals was assessed based on comparison with Canadian, Wisconsin- United States and Flemish numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines, and calculation of Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo) and Enrichment Factor (EF). The results indicated that natural processes such as weathering and erosion of bedrock are the main supply sources of heavy metals in sediments near Cua Ong Harbor. Among the studied heavy metals, only As is of concern whereas Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn seem to reflect their background concentrations in sediments of Ha Long Bay.

159 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Matching biological and chemical data were compiled from numerous modeling, laboratory, and field studies performed in marine and estuarine sediments. Using these data, two guideline values (an effects range-low and an effects range-median) were determined for nine trace metals, total PCBs, two pesticides, 13 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and three classes of PAHs. The two values defined concentration ranges that were: (1) rarely, (2) occasionally, or (3) frequently associated with adverse effects. The values generally agreed within a factor of 3 or less with those developed with the same methods applied to other data and to those developed with other effects-based methods. The incidence of adverse effects was quantified within each of the three concentration ranges as the number of cases in which effects were observed divided by the total number of observations. The incidence of effects increased markedly with increasing concentrations of all of the individual PAHs, the three classes of PAHs, and most of the trace metals. Relatively poor relationships were observed between the incidence of effects and the concentrations of mercury, nickel, total PCB, total DDT and p,p′-DDE. Based upon this evaluation, the approach provided reliable guidelines for use in sediment quality assessments. This method is being used as a basis for developing National sediment quality guidelines for Canada and informal, sediment quality guidelines for Florida.

3,546 citations


"Predictions of Sediment Toxicity Us..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…concentrations because previous studies have demonstrated that normalization of SQGs for PAHs or PCBs to total organic carbon (Barrick et al. 1988, Long et al. 1995, Ingersoll et al. 1996) or normalization of metals to acidvolatile sulfides (Long et al. 1998b) did not improve the predictions of…...

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  • ...Similarly, Long et al. (1998a) reported a 56 to 71% incidence of toxicity at mean quotients of >1....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that the consensus-based SQGs provide a reliable basis for assessing sediment quality conditions in freshwater ecosystems.
Abstract: Numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for freshwater ecosystems have previously been developed using a variety of approaches. Each approach has certain advantages and limitations which influence their application in the sediment quality assessment process. In an effort to focus on the agreement among these various published SQGs, consensus-based SQGs were developed for 28 chemicals of concern in freshwater sediments (i.e., metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides). For each contaminant of concern, two SQGs were developed from the published SQGs, including a threshold effect concentration (TEC) and a probable effect concentration (PEC). The resultant SQGs for each chemical were evaluated for reliability using matching sediment chemistry and toxicity data from field studies conducted throughout the United States. The results of this evaluation indicated that most of the TECs (i.e., 21 of 28) provide an accurate basis for predicting the absence of sediment toxicity. Similarly, most of the PECs (i.e., 16 of 28) provide an accurate basis for predicting sediment toxicity. Mean PEC quotients were calculated to evaluate the combined effects of multiple contaminants in sediment. Results of the evaluation indicate that the incidence of toxicity is highly correlated to the mean PEC quotient (R(2) = 0.98 for 347 samples). It was concluded that the consensus-based SQGs provide a reliable basis for assessing sediment quality conditions in freshwater ecosystems.

2,367 citations


"Predictions of Sediment Toxicity Us..." refers background or methods or result in this paper

  • ...The TECs were calculated by determining the geometric mean of the SQGs that were included in this category (MacDonald et al. 2000a)....

    [...]

  • ...…results of these three previous investigations demonstrated that the consensus-based SQGs provide a unifying synthesis of the existing guidelines, reflect causal rather than correlative effects, and account for the effects of contaminant mixtures in sediment (Swartz 1999, MacDonald et al. 2000a,b)....

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  • ...A second paper developed and evaluated consensus-based SQGs for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to address a similar mixture paradox for that group of contaminants (MacDonald et al. 2000b)....

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  • ...The consensus-based PECs listed in Table 1 were critically evaluated by MacDonald et al. (2000a) to determine if they would provide effective tools for assessing sediment quality conditions in freshwater ecosystems....

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  • ...Therefore, the differences in this “MPP approach” from the approach used by MacDonald et al. (2000a) are: (1) an average quotient for metals was used instead of the individual quotients for metals and (2) sum DDE was not used in the calculation....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ERhls and PELs indicated high predictive ability in samples in which many substances exceeded these concentrations, and the incidence of toxicity increased with increases in concentntions of mixtures of chemicals normalized to the SQGs.
Abstract: .-Mat~hing'syno~tically collected chemical and laboratory bioassay data (n = 1.068) were compiled from analyses of surficial sediment samples collecred during 1990 to 1993 to evaluate the predictive ability of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). specifically, effects range-low (ERL). effects range-median (ERM). threshold effects level (TELL and probable eifects level (PEL) values. Dam were acquired from surveys of sediment quality periomed in estuaries along the Atlantic. Pacific. and Gulf of hlexico coasts. Samples were classified as either nontoxic (p > 0.05 re!ative to controls). marginally toxic @ < 0.05 only). or highly toxic @ < 0.05 and response greater than minimum significant difference :elalive to controls). This analysis indic-red that. when nor exceeded. [he ERLs and TELs were highly predictive of nontoxicity. The percenrages of samples that were highly toxic generally increased with increasing numbers of guidelines (panicularly the EX.\.ls and PELS) that were exceeded. Also. the incidence of toxicity increased with increases in concentntions of mixtures of chemicals normalized to (divided by) the SQGs. The ERhls and PELs indicated high predictive ability in samples in which many substances exceeded these concentrations. Suggestions are provided on the uses of these estimates of the predictive ability oi sediment ~uidelines.

723 citations


"Predictions of Sediment Toxicity Us..." refers background or methods or result in this paper

  • ...Alternatively, Long et al. (1998a) classified sediments in a marine amphipod database as either marginally toxic (significantly reduced relative to the control) or as highly toxic (significantly reduced relative to the control with a reduction greater than a minimum significant difference; MSD)....

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  • ...Long et al. (1998a) and Field et al. (1999) reported reduced variability in the relationship between toxicity and sediment contamination when toxicity was evaluated using a standardized approach....

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  • ...The incidence of toxicity was only 12% at mean quotients of <0.1 (quotients calculated using either marine effect range median (ERM) or probable effect level (PEL) guidelines; Long et al. 1998a)....

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  • ...Long et al. (1998a) also observed an elevated incidence of toxicity with marine amphipods at low mean quotients....

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  • ...For this reason, the evaluation of the predictive ability of the SQGs in the present study was conducted to determine the incidence of effects above and below various mean PEC quotients (mean quotients of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0; Ingersoll et al. 1998, Long et al. 1998a, Fairey et al. 2000)....

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01 Mar 1990

639 citations


"Predictions of Sediment Toxicity Us..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Alternatively, Long et al. (1998a) classified sediments in a marine amphipod database as either marginally toxic (significantly reduced relative to the control) or as highly toxic (significantly reduced relative to the control with a reduction greater than a minimum significant difference; MSD). The MSD was established by Long et al. (1998a) using a power analysis of data from 10-day marine amphipod tests (Thursby et al....

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  • ...Alternatively, Long et al. (1998a) classified sediments in a marine amphipod database as either marginally toxic (significantly reduced relative to the control) or as highly toxic (significantly reduced relative to the control with a reduction greater than a minimum significant difference; MSD)....

    [...]